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AfghanistanFreedom of AssociationArticle 32 of the 1964 Constitution articulated protections of Freedom of Assembly and Freedom of Association.

Freedom of Assembly: "Afghan citizens have the right to assemble unarmed, without prior permission of the State, for the achievement of legitimate and peaceful purposes, in accordance with the provisions of the law." Freedom of Association: "Afghan citizens have the right to establish, in accordance with the provisions of the law, associations for the realisation of material or spiritual purposes."

Freedom of association is mentioned in the Afghanistan constitution of 2004 under Chapter II article 35. However, according to a US State Department 2022 report, the Taliban has restricted freedom of association and assembly and does not respect the constitution.

References:

1964 Afghanistan Constitution: https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1005&context=afghanenglish

2004 Afghanistan Constitution: https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Afghanistan_2004?%20lang=en

US State Department AFGHANISTAN 2022 Human Rights Report: https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2023/03/415610_AFGHANISTAN-2022-HUMAN-RIGHTS-REPORT.pdf
AlbaniaFreedom of AssociationArticle 199 of the 1928 Fundamental Statute of the Kingdom of Albania guaranteed freedom of association "in conformity with the law." Article 53 of the 1976 Albanian Constitution states that “citizens enjoy the freedom of speech, the press, organization, association, assembly and public manifestation. The state guarantees the realization of these freedoms, it creates the conditions for them, and makes available the necessary material means” (“The Albanian Constitution of 1976").

Freedom of Association is also asserted in the Albanian Constitution of 1998, in Chapter III, Article 46.

References:

1928 Fundamental Statute of the Kingdom of Albania: https://www.hoelseth.com/royalty/albania/albconst19281201.html

1976 Albania Constitution: https://data.globalcit.eu/NationalDB/docs/ALB%20The%20Constitution%20of%20the%20Peoples%20Socialist%20Republic%20of%20Albania%201976.pdf

1998 Albania Constitution: https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Albania_2012
AlgeriaFreedom of AssociationArticle 19 of the 1963 Algerian Constitution states that “the Republic guarantees freedom of the press and of other means of information, freedom of association, freedom of speech and public intervention, and freedom of assembly” (Middle East Journal, 1963) .

References:

“The Algerian Constitution.” The Middle East journal 17, no. 4 (1963): 446–450.
AndorraFreedom of AssociationThe first mention of freedom of association in Constitution of the Principality of Andorra of 1993 is mentioned in Chapter III, Article 17 https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Andorra_1993#s101
AngolaFreedom of AssociationArticle 22 of the 1975 Angolan Constitution states: "Within the framework of the realization of the basic objectives of the People's Republic of Angola, the law will ensure freedom of expression, assembly, and association."

Freedom of assembly in Angola is asserted in the 1992 Angolan constitution, part II, article 32: "Freedom of expression, assembly, demonstration and all other forms of expression shall be guaranteed." The 2010 constitution of Angola guarantees freedom of association in Chapter II, section I, article 48

References:

1975 Angola Constitution: “The Constitution of the People’s Republic of Angola.” World Constitutions Illustrated, Heinonline. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/rsl2&i=197

1992 Angola Constitution: https://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/Angola%20Constitution.pdf

2010 Angola Constitution: https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Angola_2010
Antigua and BarbudaFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of freedom of association is mentioned on the Antigua and Barbuda constitution order 1981 ratified October 31st Chapter II, article 13(1)

References:

The 1981 Constitution of Antigua and Barbuda: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/1981/1106/pdfs/uksi_19811106_en.pdf
ArgentinaFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of the freedom of association of Argentina can be found in the Constitution of the Argentine Nation of 1853 that was ratified May 25th in Part I, Chapter 1, article 14.

References:

http://www.biblioteca.jus.gov.ar/Argentina-Constitution.pdf

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Argentina_1994
ArmeniaFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of freedom of association is mentioned in Article 25 of the 1995 Constitution of the Republic of Armenia:

"Everyone has the right to form associations with other persons, including the right to form or join trade unions. Every citizen is entitled to form political parties with other citizens and join such parties. These rights may be restricted for persons belonging to the armed forces and law enforcement organizations. No one shall be forced to join a political party or association."

References:

http://www.parliament.am/legislation.php?sel=show&ID=2425&lang=eng
AustraliaFreedom of AssociationThe right to association is mentioned in the ICCPR article 22. Australia ratified this treaty in 1980. In the Australian constitution there is no free-standing right to association.

References:

https://www.alrc.gov.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/ip46_ch_4._freedom_of_association.pdf

https://humanrights.gov.au/our-work/rights-and-freedoms/freedom-association
AustriaFreedom of AssociationFreedom of association was articulated in Article 12 of Austria's “Basic Law on the General Rights of Nationals in the Kingdoms and Länder represented in the Council of the Realm” in 1867.

According to a report on human rights practices from the US State Department, "The constitution and law provide for the freedoms of peaceful assembly and association, and the government generally respected these rights." Austria ratified the ILO "Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention" in 1950.

References:

1867 Basic Law: https://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/au03000_.html

US State Department Report on Human Rights Practices in Austria: https://www.state.gov/reports/2021-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/austria/

1950 International Labor Organization Convention: https://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:11300:0::NO::P11300_INSTRUMENT_ID:312232
AzerbaijanFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of freedom of association in the 1995 constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic is mentioned under Chapter III Article 58 section I through IV.

References:

https://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/Azerbaijan%20Constitution.pdf

Blaustein, Albert P., and Gisbert H. Flanz. Constitutions of the Countries of the World; a Series of Updated Texts, Constitutional Chronologies and Annotated Bibliographies. "Azerbaijan Republic, Booklet 2, 1996" Permanent ed. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y: Oceana Publications, 1971.
BahrainFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of freedom of association in the 1973 Constitution of the State of Bahrain that was ratified May 26th is mentioned under chapter III, article 27: "Freedom to form associations and trade unions on a national basis and for lawful objectives and by peaceful means shall be guaranteed in accordance with the conditions and procedures prescribed by the law. No one shall be compelled to join or remain in any association or union."

One finds similar language in the 2002 Constitution: "The freedom to form associations and unions on national principles, for lawful objectives and by peaceful means is guaranteed under the rules and conditions laid down by law, provided that the fundamentals of the religion and public order are not infringed. No one can be forced to join any association or union or to continue as a member."

References:

https://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/ba01000_.html

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Bahrain_2017?lang=en
BangladeshFreedom of AssociationArticle 38 of the 1972 Bangladesh Constitution asserts: "Every citizen shall have the right to form associations or unions, subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interests of morality or public order."

References:

http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/research/bangladesh-constitution.pdf
BarbadosFreedom of AssociationArticle 21 of the 1966 Barbados Constitution held: "1. Except with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of assembly and association, that is to say, his right to assemble freely and associate with other persons and in particular to form or belong to political parties or to form or belong to trade unions or other associations for the protection of his interests. 2. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision -

a. that is reasonably required in the interest of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health; or b. that is reasonably required for the purpose of protecting the rights or freedoms of other persons; or c. that imposes restrictions upon public officers or members of a disciplined force."

References:

https://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Barbados/barbados66.html
BelarusFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of freedom of association in the Republic of Belarus is mentioned in the Belarus constitution of 1994, ratified March 15 on section II, article 36. The constitution was amended through a referendum November 26th, 1996, article 36 remains the same.

References:

https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzby0006&id=4&men_tab=srchresults

https://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/Belarus%20Constitution.pdf

https://www.venice.coe.int/webforms/documents/?pdf=CDL(2003)065-e
BelgiumFreedom of AssociationBelgium has one of the oldest constitutions in the world. The first assertion of freedom of association is mentioned in the Constitution of Belgium of 1831 that was ratified February 7th.Freedom of association is mentioned under title II, article 20. In the latest amendment it is mentioned under article 27.

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Belgium_1831

https://www.dekamer.be/kvvcr/pdf_sections/publications/constitution/GrondwetUK.pdf
BelizeFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of freedom of association in Belize is mentioned in the Belize Constitution of 1982 under Part II, Article 13. Section one articulated the right: "Except with his own consent, a person shall not be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of assembly and association, that is to say, his right to assemble freely and associate with other persons and in particular to form or belong to trade unions or other associations for the protection of his interests or to form or belong to political parties or other political associations." Section two articulated exceptions and limitations:

"Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes reasonable provision- that is required in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health; that is required for the purpose of protecting the rights or freedoms of other persons; that imposes restrictions on officers in the public service that are required for the proper performance of their functions; or that is required to prohibit any association the membership of which is restricted on grounds of race or colour."

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Belize_2011
BeninFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of Freedom of Association in the Republic of Benin is mentioned in the Constitution of Benin that was adopted at the referendum on December 2nd, 1990 under Title II, article 25 https://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/Benin%20Constitution%20-%20English%20Summary.pdf
BhutanFreedom of AssociationFreedom of association is asserted in the Constitution of Bhutan of 2008, enacted July 18th under Article 7(12): "A Bhutanese citizen shall have the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and freedom of association, other than membership of associations that are harmful to the peace and unity of the country, and shall have the right not to be compelled to belong to any association."

References:

Bhutan 2008 Constitution: https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Bhutan_2008
BoliviaFreedom of AssociationFirst assertion of Freedom of association of Bolivia is mentioned in the Constitution of 2009 of the Plurinational State of Bolivia under Chapter III, Section I, Article 21 (4) https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Bolivia_2009
Bosnia and HerzegovinaFreedom of AssociationFirst assertion of Freedom of association in Bosnia and Herzegovina is first mentioned in the Constitution of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina of 1995 under Chapter II, Article 2, Section 3(i) https://advokat-prnjavorac.com/legislation/constitution_fbih.pdf
BotswanaFreedom of AssociationChapter 2 of Botswana’s Constitution ( 1966) guarantees “freedom of conscience, of expression and of assembly and association.”
BrazilFreedom of AssociationBrazil’s constitution ( 1988) has exceptionally detailed freedom of association provisions. Title II-I-5 states that:

- there is total freedom of association for lawful purposes, but any paramilitary association is prohibited;

- creation of associations and, as set forth in law, of cooperatives, requires no authorization, prohibiting state interference in their operations;

- associations may be compulsorily dissolved or their activities suspended only by a judicial decision, which in the former case must be a final and unappealable decision;

- no one can be compelled to join an association or to remain in one;

- when expressly authorized, associations have standing to represent their members judicially and extrajudicially
BruneiFreedom of AssociationAccording to the US Department of State in 2021, "The law does not provide for freedom of association. The law requires formal groups, including religious, social, business, labor, and cultural organizations, to register with the Registrar of Societies and provide regular reports on membership and finances."

References:

2021 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Brunei: https://www.state.gov/reports/2021-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/brunei/
BulgariaFreedom of AssociationArticle 83 of the 1879 Constitution of the Principality of Bulgaria states: "Bulgaria subjects have the right of forming associations without any previous authorization, on condition that the object in view of, and the means employed by, these

assoclatIons be not prejudicial to public order, religion, or good morals."

After independence, Article 83 of the revised version of the 1879 Constitution as amended to 1911 continued to guarantee freedom of association using very similar language.

References:

1879 Constitution of the Principality of Bulgaria: English translation of the Bulgarian original text of the Constitution of 1879 6 (2014) Chapter XIV: The Ordinary National Assembly: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzbg0031&id=8&men_tab=srchresults

1879 Constitution as amended to 1911 : English text of the Constitution of 1879, as amended to 1911 95 (2010) Section 10:

The Right of Petition: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzbg0005&id=8&men_tab=srchresults
Burkina FasoFreedom of AssociationAccording to Article 7 of the 1959 Constitution of Upper Volta, "The political parties and groups participate in the expression of suffrage. They form themselves and exercise their activities freely within respect for the democratic principles and of the sovereignty of the State."

According to Article 21 of the 1991 Constitution of Burkina Faso, as revised in 2015, "The freedom of association is guaranteed. Every person has the right to constitute associations and to participate freely in the activities of the associations created. The functioning of the associations must conform to the laws and regulations in force. The syndical freedom is guaranteed. The unions exercise their activities without constraint and without limitation other than those specified by the law."

References:

English Translation of the French Official Original Text of the Constitution of 1959 3-4 (2021) Title I: Of the State and of Sovereignty: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.cow/zzbf0033&id=3&collection=cow&index=

1991 Constitution of Burkina Faso 1991 as revised in 2015: https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Burkina_Faso_2015
BurundiFreedom of AssociationIn the 1962 Constitution of Burundi, Article 18 provides for freedom of association: "All Barundi have the right of association and of assembly, except in regard to associations or assemblies which are illegal or contrary to morals." English translation of the Constitution of 1962, "Title II: Barundi and their Rights," Constitution of the Kingdom of Burundi : 20-21: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzbi0002&id=3&men_tab=srchresults
CambodiaFreedom of AssociationArticle 10 of the 1947 Constitution states: "All Cambodians have a right to associate freely, unless their

association endangers or tends to endanger the liberties guaranteed by the present Constitution. They are also granted liberty of meeting."

According to Article 42 of the 1993 Constitution, "Khmer Citizens have the rights to establish associations and political parties. These rights shall be determined by law. Khmer citizens may take part in mass organizations to work together to protect national achievement and social order."

https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.cow/zzkh0002&collection=cow

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Cambodia_2008?lang=en
CameroonFreedom of AssociationThe 1961 Cameroon Constitution offered a general guarantee of those rights in the UDHR (of which one is freedom of association): "The Federal Republic of Cameroon is democratic, secular and social. It shall ensure the equality of all citizens before the law. It affirms its adherence to the fundamental freedoms set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Charter of the United Nations." However, the 1961 Constitution did not discuss the right to freedom of association specifically.

Freedom of association is specifically guaranteed in the 1972 Cameroon Constitution: "the freedom of communication, of expression, of the press, of assembly, of association, and of trade unionism, as well as the right to strike shall be guaranteed under the conditions fixed by law"

https://condor.depaul.edu/mdelance/images/Pdfs/Federal%20Constitution%20of%20Cameroon.pdf

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Cameroon_2008?lang=en
CanadaFreedom of AssociationChapter 345 Section 5 of Saskatchewan’s Bill of Rights ( 1947) states that “every person and every class of persons shall enjoy the right to peaceable assembly with others and to form with others associations of any character under the law.” Part 1 of the Canadian Bill of Rights ( 1960) lists “freedom of assembly and association” as a guaranteed right. This was an ordinary act of parliament, and it has been replaced by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, an amendment to the Canadian Constitution.
Cape VerdeFreedom of AssociationArticle 51 of the 1980 Cape Verde Constitution articulated the right to freedom of association. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Cape_Verde_1992
Central African RepublicFreedom of AssociationArticle 12 of the 1994 Constitution stated: "Every citizen has the right to freely constitute associations, groups, societies, and establishments of public utility under reservation of conformity to laws and regulations. The associations, groups, societies and establishments, of which the activities are contrary to public order as well and the unity and the cohesion of the Central African people, are prohibited." https://g7plus.fd.uc.pt/pdfs/CentralAfricanRepublic.pdf
ChadFreedom of AssociationAccording to Article 27 of the 1996 Constitution of Chad: "The freedoms of opinion and of expression, of communication, of conscience, of religion, of the press, of association, of assembly, of movement, of demonstration and of procession are guaranteed to all. They may only be limited for the respect of the freedoms and the rights of others and by the imperative to safeguard the public order and good morals. The law determines the conditions of [their] exercise." https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Chad_2005
ChileFreedom of AssociationThe 1925 Constitution of Chile guaranteed "The right of association without prior license and in conformity with the law." https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Chile_1925?lang=en
ChinaFreedom of AssociationChapter 2-4 of the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China (1912) stated that “citizens shall have the freedom of speech, of composition, of publication, of assembly and of association.” https://archive.org/details/jstor-2212590/page/n1/mode/2up Under the current government of China, Article 35 of the 2018 Constitution of the People’s Republic of China states: “Citizens of the People’s Republic of China shall enjoy freedom of speech, the press, assembly, association, procession and demonstration.” http://www.npc.gov.cn/englishnpc/constitution2019/201911/1f65146fb6104dd3a2793875d19b5b29.shtml
ColombiaFreedom of AssociationAccording to Article 38 of the 1991 Colombia Constitution: The right of free association for the promotion of various activities that individuals pursue in society is guaranteed." https://constituteproject.org/constitution/Colombia_2015?lang=en
ComorosFreedom of AssociationArticle 21 of the 2018 Comoros Constitution asserts: "The freedom of thought and of expression, of association, of intellectual, artistic or cultural creation, of protest and the other freedoms consecrated by the Constitution, the laws and by the international law received within the juridical internal order, are guaranteed."
Costa RicaFreedom of AssociationAccording to Article 25 of the 1949 Constitution, "The inhabitants of the Republic have the right of association for lawful purposes. No one may be compelled to form a part of any association whatsoever." http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/research/costarica-constitution.html
CroatiaFreedom of AssociationArticle 43 of the 1991 Croatia Constitution states: "Everyone shall be guaranteed the right to freedom of association for the purposes of protection of their interests or promotion of their social, economic, political, national, cultural and other convictions and objectives. For this purpose, everyone may freely form trade unions and other associations, join them or leave them, in conformity with law. The exercise of this right shall be restricted by the prohibition of any violent threat to the democratic constitutional order and independence, unity and territorial integrity of the Republic of Croatia." https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Croatia_2013?lang=en
CubaFreedom of AssociationArticle 54 of the 1976 Cuba Constitution states: "The rights of assembly, demonstration and association are exercised by workers, both manual and intellectual; peasants; women; students; and other sectors of the working people, [rights] to which they have the necessary ability (los medios necesarios) to exercise. The social and mass organizations have all the facilities they need to carry out those activities in which the members have full freedom of speech and opinion based on the unlimited right of initiative and criticism." https://constituteproject.org/constitution/Cuba_2002
CyprusFreedom of AssociationArticle 21, Section 2 of the 1960 Cyprus Constitution states: "Every person has the right to freedom of association with others, including the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.". There are limitations to this right in Article 21, Section 3-4: "No restrictions shall be placed on the exercise of these rights other than such as are prescribed by law and are absolutely necessary only in the interests of the security of the Republic or the constitutional order or the public safety or the public order or the public health or the public morals or for the protection of the rights and liberties guaranteed by this Constitution to any person, whether or not such person participates in such assembly or is a member of such association. Any association the object or activities of which are contrary to the constitutional order is prohibited." https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Cyprus_2013?lang=en
Czech RepublicFreedom of AssociationArticle 20, section 1 of the 1992 Czechoslovakia Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms guaranteed freedom of association. Section 3 of that same article described some limitations to this freedom: "The exercise of these rights may be limited only in cases specified by law, if it involves measures that are necessary in a democratic society for the security of the state, the protection of public security and public order, the prevention of crime, or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others." CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS. https://www.usoud.cz/fileadmin/user_upload/ustavni_soud_www/Pravni_uprava/AJ/Listina_English_version.pdf
Democratic Republic of the CongoFreedom of AssociationAccording to Article 28 of the 1964 Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, citizens have the right to freedom of association. They also have the right to strike, and this entails the responsibility of the government to ensure that "vital public services or services of public interest" continue even during a strike. However, Article 29 forbids police officers, members of the military, and the Gendarmerie from striking and from joining trade unions or other political associations.

References:

1964 Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Translation:Constitution_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo_(1964)#Title_II._Fundamental_rights
DenmarkFreedom of AssociationAccording to Article 87 of the Fundamental Law of the Kingdom of Denmark [Revising the Fundamental Law of 1849], 1866: "The citizens shall have the right, without previous authorization, to form associations for any lawful purpose. No association shall be dissolved by an order of the government. However, associations may be forbidden temporarily, but in such cases an action shall immediately be brought for the dissolution of such associations."

References:

Fundamental Law of the Kingdom of Denmark [Revising the Fundamental Law of 1849], 1866: English translation of the Fundamental Law of 1866, revising that of 1849. 279 (1866) VIII: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzdk0009&id=13&men_tab=srchresults
DjiboutiFreedom of AssociationArticle 15 of the 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Djibouti guarantees both freedom of association and the right to strike.

References:

1992 Constitution of the Republic of Djibouti: "Title I: Of the State and Of Sovereignty," Constitution of the Republic of Djibouti, 15 September 1992 : 3-4

https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzdj0005&id=3&men_tab=srchresults
DominicaFreedom of AssociationArticle 11 of the 1978 Constitution of the Commonwealth of Dominica guarantees freedom of association, including trade union membership.

References:

1978 Constitution of the Commonwealth of Dominica: "Chapter I: Protection of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms," Commonwealth of Dominica Constitution Order, 1978 (1978): 2919-2934: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzdm0004&id=17&men_tab=srchresults
Dominican RepublicFreedom of AssociationArticle 30 of the 1844 Constitution of the Dominican Republic guarantees freedom of association.

References:

1844 Constitution of the Dominican Republic: Spanish orignal text of the Constitution of 1844 57 (2012) Chapter I: Of Sovereignty

https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzdo0015&id=5&men_tab=srchresults
East TimorFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of association in East Timor comes in their Constitution, ratified on May 20, 2002. The right comes in Part II, Title II, Section 42 (“Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste”, 2002). 2002. Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste. May 20. http://timor-leste.gov.tl/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/Constitution_RDTL_ENG.pdf.
EcuadorFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of association in Ecuador comes in the Constitution of 1869, ratified on

August 11. The right comes in Title XI, Article 109 (“Constitución de 1869”, 1869). The current Constitution, ratified in 2008, asserts the right in Article 66 (“Ecuador 2008 (rev. 2021) Constitution”, 2021). 1869. “Constitución de 1869.” ConstitutionNet. August 11.

2021. “Ecuador 2008 (Rev. 2021) Constitution.” 2021. ConstitutionNet. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Ecuador_2021?lang=en.
EgyptFreedom of AssociationThe first known assertion of the right to association in Egypt was in the Royal Decree No. 42 of 1923, which established a Constitutional system of government in monarchical Egypt. The right is established in Part II, Article 21 (“Royal Decree No. 42 of 1923”, 1923). 1923. Royal Decree No. 42 of 1923. https://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/1923_-_egyptian_constitution_english_1.pdf.
El SalvadorFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of the right to association in El Salvador was the Constitution of 1872, ratified November 9th. The right is located in Title III, Article 42 (“Constitución Política de la República de El Salvador de 1872”, 1872). “Constitución Política de La República de El Salvador de 1872.” 1872. Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes. November 9. https://www.cervantesvirtual.com/obra-visor/constitucion-politica-de-la-republica-de-el-salvador-de-1872/html/04982632-e83f-491a-873b-3bbf5d5fb62f_2.html.
Equatorial GuineaFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of the right to association in Equatorial Guinea was in their first constitution, ratified on October 12, 1968. The right is established in Chapter 1, Article 3 (“Constitution of Equatorial Guinea (1968)”, 2023). “Constitution of Equatorial Guinea (1968).” 2023. Wikisource. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 27. https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Constitution_of_Equatorial_Guinea_(1968).
EritreaFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of the right to freedom of association in Eritrea is in the Constitution ratified on May 23, 1997. The right is located in Chapter 1, Article 19 (“Eritrea 1997 Constitution”, 1997). “Eritrea 1997 Constitution.” 1997. Constitute. May 23. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Eritrea_1997?lang=en.
EstoniaFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of a right to association in Estonia is in the Estonian Declaration of Independence, written on February 23, 1918. The right is asserted as the third of the numbered principles in the Declaration. (“Estonian Declaration of Independence”, 1918) “Estonian Declaration of Independence.” 1918. Declaration Project. February 23. https://declarationproject.org/?p=1725.
EswatiniFreedom of AssociationThe Constitution of Eswatini, ratified October 4, 2004, was the first official document to protect association. The right is protected under Chapter III, Article 25 (“Eswatini 2005 Constitution”, 2004). “Eswatini 2005 Constitution.” 2004. Constitute. October 4. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Swaziland_2005?lang=en.
EthiopiaFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of the right to association in Ethiopia was in the 1955 revised Constitution, ratified on 24 Tekempt in the Ethiopian Calender, which is November 3rd. The assertion of the right is located in chapter 1, article 47 (“1955 revised constitution of Ethiopia”, 1948). “1955 Revised Constitution of Ethiopia.” 1948. European Legal Brief. November 3. https://chilot.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/1955-revised-constitution-of-ethiopia1.pdf.
Federated States of MicronesiaFreedom of AssociationFreedom of association is protected in the Federated States of Micronesia’s Constitution of 1978. Article IV Section 1 states that: “No law may deny or impair freedom of expression, peaceable assembly, association, or petition” (constituteproject.org). “Micronesia (Federated States of) 1978 (Rev. 1990) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 19, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Micronesia_1990.
FijiFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of association is in Fiji’s first constitution, going into effect October 10, 1970. The right is found in Chapter II, Article 13 (“Fiji Independence Order 1970 and Constitution of Fiji, 1970). 1970. Fiji Independence Order 1970 and Constitution of Fiji . September 30. https://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/1970_constitution.pdf.
FinlandFreedom of AssociationThe Finnish right to association was first enshrined on July 17th, 1919 in the Constitution Act of Finland. The right is found in Section 10a. (“Constitution Act of Finland”, 1919). “Constitution Act of Finland.” 1919. Refworld. July 17. https://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b53418.html.
FranceFreedom of AssociationTitle I of the French Constitution of 1791 guarantees the right of peaceful assembly.

“Liberty to citizens to assemble peaceably and without arms in accordance with police regulations.”

Though the French Constitution of 1791 protected the right to assemble, French revolutionaries considered explicitly excluding free association (Boyd 257). The French enacted a law protecting free association in 1901, and enshrined it in their constitution in 1971 (Boyd 2008, 237).

References:

Boyd, Richard. “THE MADISONIAN PARADOX OF FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION.” Social philosophy & policy 25, no. 2 (2008): 235–262.
GabonFreedom of AssociationGabon asserted their right to association first in their 1963 Constitution, ratified May 31. The right is found in Title 1, Article 8 (“CONSTITTUTION DE LA RÉPIJBLIQIJE GABONAISE”, 1963) “CONSTITTUTION DE LA RÉPIJBLIQIJE GABONAISE.” 1963. Wix.Com. May 31. https://support.wix.com/en/article/wix-editor-staticwixstaticcommedia-appears-in-url-of-wix-images.
GeorgiaFreedom of AssociationGeorgia proclaimed the right to association in the 1995 constitution, ratified on November 6th. The right is located in Chapter II, Article 22 (Georgia 1995 (rev. 2018) Constitution, 1992). “Georgia 1995 (Rev. 2018) Constitution.” 1992. Constitute. November 6. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Georgia_2018?lang=en.
GermanyFreedom of AssociationArticle 7 of the of the "Law Concerning the Basic Rights of the German People," from 27 December 1848, asserted freedom of association.

The right to free association for the German state was later asserted in the 11 August 1919 Constitution of the German Reich (The Weimar Constitution), ratified on August 11, 1919. The right can be found in Chapter II, Section II, Article 124. Article 124 states: "All the Germans have the right to form associations or societies for purposes not contrary to criminal law. This right may not be curtailed by preventive measures. The same provisions apply to religious associations and societies. Every association may become incorporated (Erwerb der Rechtsfähigkeit) according to the provisions of the civil law. The right may not be refused to any association on the grounds that its aims are political, social-politica! or religious."

References:

"IV. Fundamental Rights of the German People voted in by the National Assembly in Frankfurt.," IV. Droits Fondementaux du Peuple Allemand votes par l'Assemblee Nationale de Francfort. (1848): 213: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.cow/zzde0172&id=1&collection=cow&index=

The Constitution of the German Reich / August 11, 1919 / Translation of Document 2050-PS / Office of U.S. Chief of Counsel. Courtesy of Cornell University Law Library, Donovan Nuremberg Trials Collection.

https://digital.library.cornell.edu/catalog/nur01840
GhanaFreedom of AssociationGhana first asserts their right to freedom of association in their 1979 constitution, ratified on September 24th. The right is found in Chapter Six, Article 29 (“Constitution of the third republic of Ghana”, 1979). 1979. Constitution of the Third Republic of Ghana. September 24. https://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/constitution_of_the_third_republic_of_ghana.pdf.
GreeceFreedom of AssociationThe Greek Constitution of 1927 established the right to association, being ratified on June 3. The right to association is found in Chapter III, Article 14 (“Constitution of Greece (1927)”, 2022). “Constitution of Greece (1927).” 2022. Wikisource, the Free Online Library. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 16. https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Constitution_of_Greece_(1927)
GrenadaFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of the right to association in Grenada was in the Constitutional Order of 1973, ratified on October 12th. The right can be found in Chapter I, Article 1, Point B (“Grenada Constitution of 1973”, 1973). 1973. Grenada Constitution of 1973. December 19. https://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/Grenada%20Constitution.pdf.
GuatemalaFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of the right to associate in Guatemala is located in the Constitutive Law of 1879, which was the Constitutive order issued on December 11. The right is found in Title II, Article 25 (“Constitutions 1830-1900 Reform”, 2015). “Constitutions 1830-1900 Reform.” 2015. Internet Archive: Wayback Machine. May 5. https://web.archive.org/web/20150505003356/http://www.minex.gob.gt/ADMINPORTAL/Data/DOC/20100930181643120Consti1830-1900reform.ydcretos.pdf.
GuineaFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of the right to associate in Guinea was in their 1958 Constitution, ratified on November 10th. The right is asserted in Title X, Section 40 (Maury, “République de Guinée, Constitution du 10 Novembre 1958”, 1958). Maury, Jean-Pierre. 1958. “République de Guinée, Constitution Du 10 Novembre 1958.” République de Guinée, Constitution Du 10 Novembre 1958, Digithèque MJP. November 10. https://mjp.univ-perp.fr/constit/gn1958.htm.
Guinea-BissauFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of the right to association was in the May 11, 1991 amendments to the Guinea-Bisseau Constitution. The right can be found in Title II, Article 44 (“Constitutional Documents Available for the Republic of Guinea-Bissau”, 1991). 1991. Constitutional Documents Available for the Republic of Guinea-Bissau. May 11. https://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/Guinea-Bissau%20Constitution.pdf.
GuyanaFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of the right to freedom of association in Guyana is in the 1966 Constitution, ratified on May 16th. The right is found in Chapter II, Article 13 (“National Assembly of the Parliament of Guyana”, 1966). 1966. National Assembly of the Parliament of Guyana. May 16. https://parliament.gov.gy/new2/documents/bills/21123/statutory_instrument_guyana_independence_order_1966_no_575.pdf.
HaitiFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of the right to associate in Haiti is in the Constitution of 1843, ratified on December 30th. The right is found in Title III, Article 34 (Maury, “Haiti: Constitution du 30 Décembre 1843”, 1843). The Constitution of 1807 makes mention in Title X, Article 30 that “No association…which intends to disturb the public order shall be tolerated in Haiti”, insinuating a right to association that does not disturb the public order, but it does not outright assert the positive right to associate (“The 1807 Constitution of Haiti”, 1807).

Maury, Jean-Pierre. 1843. “Haiti: Constitution Du 30 Décembre 1843.” Haïti, Constitution de 1843, Digithèque MJP. December 30. https://mjp.univ-perp.fr/constit/ht1843.htm.

“The 1807 Constitution of Haiti.” 1807. Haiti: 1807 Constitution. February 17. https://web.archive.org/web/20060419010800/http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/history/earlyhaiti/1807-const.htm.
HondurasFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of the right to associate in Honduras was in their Constitution of 1880. The right is located in Chapter Two, Article 9, Number 5 (“Constitución de Honduras de 1880”, 1880). “Constitución de Honduras de 1880.” 1880. Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes. Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes. November 1. https://www.cervantesvirtual.com/obra-visor/constitucion-de-honduras-de-1880/html/44ec3699-d923-4453-8da4-3f3ab7f0fe36_2.html#I_0_.
HungaryFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of the right of association in Hungary is the 1949 Constitution, ratified on August 20. The right is found in Chapter 8, Article 56 (“1949 Hungarian Constitution”, 1949). 1949. 1949 Hungarian Constitution. August 20. https://lapa.princeton.edu/hosteddocs/hungary/1949%20Hungarian%20constitution.pdf.
IcelandFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of the right of association in Iceland is in their 1944 Constitution, ratified on June 17, 1944. The right was asserted in Chapter VII, Article 74 (“Constitution of the Republic of Iceland”, 1944). 1944. Constitution of the Republic of Iceland. June 17. https://www.government.is/library/01-Ministries/Prime-Ministrers-Office/constitution_of_iceland.pdf.
IndiaFreedom of AssociationThe following is from Gandhi’s “Liberty of the Press” from 12 January 1922:

“Freedom of association is truly respected when assemblies of people can discuss even revolutionary projects, the State relying upon the force of public opinion and the civil police, not the savage military at its disposal, to crush any actual outbreak of revolution that is designed to confound public opinion and the State representing it…. The fight for swaraj means a fight for this threefold freedom before all else."

Part III Article 19 of the Indian Constitution (1950) grants citizens the right to “form associations or unions” (Dalton).
IndonesiaFreedom of AssociationThe Indonesian right of association is first asserted in their 1945 Constitution, ratified on August 18. The right was asserted in Chapter XA, Article 28E (“The 1945 constitution of the Republic of Indonesia”, 1945). 1945. The 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia. August 18. https://jdih.bapeten.go.id/unggah/dokumen/peraturan/116-full.pdf.
IranFreedom of AssociationArticle 21 of the Supplementary Constitutional Law of 7 October 1907 states the following:"Societies and associations which do not provoke religious or civil strife are free throughout the realm; but their members must be unarmed and must obey the regulations which the law on this subject shall lay down. Meetings in the high roads or public squares must be held in accordance with the laws of the police."

Under Article 26 of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran (1979), “The formation of parties, societies, political or professional associations, as well as religious societies, whether Islamic or pertaining to one of the recognized religious minorities, is permitted provided they do not violate the principles of independence, freedom, national unity, the criteria of Islam, or the basis of the Islamic Republic. No one may be prevented from participating in the aforementioned groups, or be compelled to participate in them” (constituteproject.org).

References:

Wright, Herbert F. Constitutions of the States at War 1914-1918 . Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off.: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/stwar0001&id=499&men_tab=srchresults#

“Iran (Islamic Republic of) 1979 (Rev. 1989) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 19, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Iran_1989.
IraqFreedom of AssociationArticle 12 of Iraq’s 1925 Constitution protected freedom of association: “Freedom of expression of opinion, liberty of publication, of meeting together, and of forming and joining associations is guaranteed to all Iraqis within such limits as may be prescribed by law”.

Freedom of association is protected in two different sections of the Iraqi Constitution of 2005. Article 22 Section 3 states that: “The State shall guarantee the right to form and join unions and professional associations, and this shall be regulated by law” while Article 39 Section 1 states that: “The freedom to form and join associations and political parties shall be guaranteed, and this shall be regulated by law” (constituteproject.org).

References:

Iraq 1925 Constitution: https://constitution.org/1-Constitution/cons/iraq/iraqiconst19250321.html

“Iraq 2005 Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 19, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Iraq_2005.
IsraelFreedom of AssociationWhile freedom of association is not explicitly outlined in the Israeli Constitution, the addendum Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty of 1992 outlines the fundamental freedoms of life, dignity, and protection afforded to all people (Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty, 1992). "[Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty]," [Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty] (1992): 150-150
ItalyFreedom of AssociationPart 1 Title 1 Article 18 of the Italian Constitution ( 1947) states that:

- “Citizens have the right to form associations freely and without authorization for those ends that are not forbidden by criminal law.”

- “Secret associations and associations that, even indirectly, pursue political aims by means of organisations having a military character shall be forbidden.”
Ivory CoastFreedom of AssociationThe 1960 Constitution of the First Republic of the Côte D’Ivoire openly states its adherence to “the principles of Democracy and of the Rights of Man, as they have been identified by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789…” (World Constitutions Illustrated). But, it makes no explicit reference to the right of free association until the 2016 Constitution of the Third Republic— Article 20 states that “Freedoms of association, assembly and peaceful demonstration are guaranteed by law” (constituteproject.org).

“Côte d’Ivoire 2016 Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 19, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Cote_DIvoire_2016.

"Title I: Of the State and of Sovereignty," Constitution of the Republic of Cote d'Ivoire 3 November 1960 (1960): 3-4
JamaicaFreedom of AssociationFreedom of association has been a protected right since the ratification of the first Constitution of 1962. Chapter III Article 13b states that “Whereas every person in Jamaica is entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, has the right, whatever his race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed or sex, but subject to respect for the rights and freedoms of others and for the public interest, to each and all of the following, namely: … freedom of conscience, of expression and of peaceful assembly and association…” (World Constitutions Illustrated). "Chapter III: Fundamental Rights and Freedoms," Constitution of Jamaica : 812-824
JapanFreedom of AssociationArticle 29 of the 1889 Japan Constitution stated: "Japanese subjects shall within the limits of the law, enjoy the liberty of speech, writing, publication, public meeting and association."

Article 21 of Japan's 1947 Constitution guaranteed freedom of association as well: "Freedom of assembly and association as well as speech, press and all other forms of expression are guaranteed."

References:

1889 Japan Constitution: https://constituteproject.org/constitution/Japan_1889

1946 Japan Constitution: https://japan.kantei.go.jp/constitution_and_government_of_japan/constitution_e.html
JordanFreedom of AssociationPart I Article 18 of the Jordanian Constitution provides the first mention of freedom of association in Jordan: “18. All Transjordanians shall have the right to assemble together and to form associations within the provisions of the law” (World Constitutions Illustrated). "Part I: Rights of the People," Constitution of Transjordan : 980-981
KazakhstanFreedom of AssociationFreedom of association is protected in several places in the 1993 Constitution of Kazakhstan, but most directly in Chapter 4 Article 16 which states that “Citizens of the Republic shall have the right to form public associations on the basis of free expression of will and community of interests for the implementation of their rights and freedoms”.

References:

"The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan," International Legal Perspectives 5, no. 1 (1993): 112
KenyaFreedom of AssociationFreedom of association is protected in Kenya’s first Constitution, which was ratified in 1963. Chapter II Article 14b states that “Whereas every person in Kenya is entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, the right, whatever his race, tribe, place of origin or residence or other local connexion, political opinions, colour, creed or sex, but subject to respect for the rights and freedoms of others and for the public interest, to each and all of the following, namely: …freedom of conscience, of expression and of assembly and association…”. This is further elaborated in Article 24(1): "Except with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of assembly and association, that is to say, his right to assemble freely and associate with other persons and in particular to form or belong to trade unions or other associations for the protection of his interests."

Article 24(2) of the 1963 Constitution articulated the grounds for potential exception, or considerations relevant to conflict among rights and/or laws relevant to freedom of association: "Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision— (a) that is reasonably required in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health; or (b) that is reasonably required for the purpose of protecting the rights or freedoms of other persons; or (c) that imposes restrictions upon public officers, and except so far as that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society."

The language found in Articles 14(b) and 24(1) of the 1963 Constitutions is repeated exactly in Articles 70 and 80(1) of the the 1969 Constitution. The language from 24(2) of the 1963 Constitution is also repeated in Article 80(2) of the 1969 Constitution, but further points are added to Article 80(2) of the 1969 Constitution.

References:

1963 Constitution of Kenya: http://kenyalaw.org/kl/fileadmin/pdfdownloads/1963_Constitution.pdf

1969 Constitution of Kenya: https://repository.kippra.or.ke/bitstream/handle/123456789/2324/THE%20CONSTITUTION%20OF%20KENYA%20ACT%201969%20No%205.%20of%201969.pdf?sequence=1
Kingdom of the NetherlandsFreedom of AssociationFreedom of association is protected under Article 8: “The right of association shall be recognized. This right may be restricted by Act of Parliament in the interest of public order” (constituteproject.org). “Netherlands 1814 (Rev. 2008) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 19, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Netherlands_2008.
KiribatiFreedom of AssociationKiribati conditionally protects freedom of association under Chapter II Section 13.1-2 in their 1979 Constitution: “1. Except with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of assembly and association… 2. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision—(a) in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health; (b) for the purpose of protecting the rights or freedoms of other persons; or (c) that imposes restrictions upon public employees…” (constituteproject.org). “Kiribati 1979 (Rev. 2013) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 19, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Kiribati_2013.
KuwaitFreedom of Association- The first Constitution of Kuwait was ratified in 1962 and reinstated in 1992. Freedom of association is protected in Part III Article 43 which provides that “The liberty of forming societies and unions on a national basis and by peaceful means is guaranteed in conformity with the conditions and the stipulations specified by Law; and no person shall be constrained to join any society or union” (constituteproject.org). “Kuwait 1962 (Reinst. 1992) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 19, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Kuwait_1992.
KyrgyzstanFreedom of AssociationAccording to Article 8.1 of the 1993 Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic as amended in February 1996, "Political parties, trade unions and other public associations may be organized in the Kyrgyz Republic on the bases of free will and unity or

interests. The State shall guarantee the rights and lawful interests of public associations."

References:

1993 Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic as amended in February 1996: http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/research/kyrgyzrepublic-constitution.html
LaosFreedom of Association- The first Constitution of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic protects freedom of association in the preamble which states that “Laos recognizes these as fundamental rights of Laotians: individual freedom, freedom of conscience, freedom of property, freedom to speak, write and publish, freedom to teach, freedom of assembly and association, freedom of profession, equality before the law, security of livelihood” (World Constitutions Illustrated). “Constitution of Laos 11th May, 1947.” World Constitutions Illustrated, n.d. https://heinonline-org.uc.idm.oclc.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.cow/bfsprs0149&id=1&collection=cow&index=#.
LatviaFreedom of AssociationLegal protection of freedom of association was not added to the Latvian Constitution until 1998, 78 years after its original ratification (constituteproject.org). In this version, Article 102 states that “Everyone has the right to join associations, political parties and other public organisations” (constituteproject.org). “Latvia 1922 (Reinst. 1991, Rev. 2016) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 19, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Latvia_2016.
LebanonFreedom of Association- Freedom of association is protected under Chapter 1 Article 13 of the 1926 Lebanese Constitution which states: “The freedom of opinion, expression through speech and writing, the freedom of the press, the freedom of assembly, and the freedom of association, are all guaranteed within the scope of the law” (constituteproject.org). “Lebanon 1926 (Rev. 2004) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 19, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Lebanon_2004.
LesothoFreedom of AssociationThe first Constitution of Lesotho, ratified in 1966, conditionally protects freedom of association in Chapter II Article 15.1-2c: “(1) Every person shall be entitled to, and (except with his own assembly and consent) shall not be hindered in his enjoyment of freedom of association that is to say, freedom to assemble and associate with other persons and in particular to form or belong to trade unions and other associations for the protection of his interests. (2) Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision— (a) in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health; or (b) for the purpose of protecting the rights and freedoms of other persons; or (c) for the purpose of imposing restrictions upon public officers” (World Constitutions Illustrated). This Constitution was suspended in 1970, but it is today protected under Article 13 of the 1993 constitution (constituteproject.org).

References:

“Lesotho - Africa.” Constitute. Accessed July 19, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/countries/Africa/Lesotho.

“Lesotho Independence Order, 1966.” HeinOnline World Constitutions Illustrated. Accessed July 19, 2023. https://heinonline-org.uc.idm.oclc.org/HOL/COWShow?collection=cow&cow_id=234.
LiberiaFreedom of AssociationThe first mention of freedom of association (through association) in Liberia is in the Constitution of 1825 which was written by the American Colonization Society. Article I states that “ALL persons born within the limits of the territory held by the American Colonization Society, in Liberia, in Africa, or removing there to reside, shall be free, and entitled to all such rights and privileges, as are enjoyed by the citizens of the United States” while Article VI further establishes that “The common law, as in force and modified in the United States, and applicable to the situation of the people, shall be in force in the Settlement” (World Constitutions Illustrated). "Constitution for the Government of the African Colony at Liberia," Constitution for the Government of the African Colony at Liberia; Plan for the Civil Government of Liberia; Digest of the Laws now in force in the Colony of Liberia, August 19th, 1824 (1825): 5-6
LibyaFreedom of AssociationFreedom of association is protected under Article 26 of the 1951 Libyan Constitution: “Freedom of peaceful association shall be guaranteed, and the exercise thereof shall be regulated by law. Secret societies and associations that aim to achieve political goals through organizations of a military character are prohibited” (World Constitutions Illustrated). "Constitution of the Kingdom of Libya of 1951," [Constitution of the Kingdom of Libya of 1951] (1951): 1-26
LiechtensteinFreedom of Association- The Constitution of 1848 of Liechtenstein guarantees freedom of association in Part III Section 51: “The Constitution guarantees the free right of association for peaceful discussions of state and community affairs, which everyone is free to attend” (World Constitutions Illustrated). "Part III: The People and Their Rights," Entwurf: Einer Verfassung fur das Furstenthum Liechtenstein vom 1. Oktober 1848 (1848): 6-8
LithuaniaFreedom of Association- Lithuania’s 1992 Constitution protects freedom of association under Chapter II Article 35 which states that: “Citizens shall be guaranteed the right to freely form societies, political parties and associations, provided that the aims and activities thereof are not contrary to the Constitution and laws. No one may be compelled to belong to any society, political party, or association” (constituteproject.org). “Lithuania 1992 (Rev. 2019) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 19, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Lithuania_2019.
LuxembourgFreedom of AssociationChapter I Article 26 of the 1868 Constitution of Luxembourg states that: “The Constitution guarantees the right of association, in compliance with the laws that govern the exercise of this right without having to be submitted to a prior authorization” (constituteproject.org). “Luxembourg 1868 (Rev. 2009) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 19, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Luxembourg_2009.
MadagascarFreedom of AssociationThe 1992 Constitution of Madagascar was a democratic document that gave citizens the right to freedom of association. Article 10 of the Constitution states that freedom of association, among other rights, is guaranteed to all and may only be limited in the circumstances outlined (“Madagascar: Constitution”).

“Madagascar: Constitution” 1992. Refworld

https://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b5a98.html
MalawiFreedom of AssociationThe 1964 Malawi Constitution guaranteed freedom of association in Article 11(b) and in Article 21(1). According to Article 21(1): "Except with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of assembly and association, that is to say, his right to assemble freely and associate with other persons and in particular to form or belong to trade unions or other associations for the protection of his interests."

Adopted on May 16, 1994, the Constitution of Malawi asserts the right to freedom of association to all citizens in the country’s legal code. Article 32 states that “[e]very person shall have the right to freedom of association, which shall include the freedom to form associations” and “[n]o person maybe be compelled to belong to an association” (Malawi 1994, 16).

References:

1964 Malawi Constitution: http://citizenshiprightsafrica.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/03/Malawi-Constitution-1964.pdf

Malawi. "Malawi's Constitution of 1994 with Amendments through 1999." Constitute Project. 1994.

https://faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/mlw136089.pdf.
MalaysiaFreedom of AssociationThe 1957 Federal Constitution of Malaysia is the first piece of legal documentation that assured the right to freedom of association in Malaysia after it gained complete independence from British rule. The document declares that “all citizens have the right to form associations” in Section 1C of article 10 concerning the right to freedom of speech, assembly, and association (Malaysia 1957). Article 10, Section 2C states that " "Parliament may by law impose ... on the right conferred by paragraph (c) of Clause (1), such restrictions as it deems necessary or expedient in the interest of the security of the Federation or any part thereof, public order or morality." Article 10 Section 3 states: "Restrictions on the right to form associations conferred by paragraph (c) of Clause (1) may also be imposed by any law relating to labour or education."

References:

1957 Malaysia Constitution: http://www.commonlii.org/my/legis/const/1957/2.html
MaldivesFreedom of AssociationThe first Constitution of the Maldives, created in 1932, protected several civil and political rights, including the freedom to join or form associations and societies in Article 17. The Constitution proved to be short lived, being quite unpopular, and was amended in 1934 and later completely replaced in 1942. The Maldives eventually transitioned from a monarchy to a republic, and the current constitution provides greater protection of the right (Nazeer 2022, 125). Article 16 of the 1969 Constitution of the Republic of Maldives As Amended to 1975 states: "There shall be freedom to form societies and associations as long as they do not contravene provisions specifically laid down in the law."

References:

Nazeer, Ahmed. "The Maldives: From Dictatorship to Constitutional Democracy and the Quest for Consolidation ." University of Portsmouth, 2022.

1969 Constitution of the Republic of Maldives As Amended to 1975: Peaslee Amos J.; Xydis, Dorothy Peaslee. Constitutions of Nation. The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff.: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/ctituson0002&id=723#
MaliFreedom of AssociationMali:

Mali’s 1974 Constitution protects the right of its citizens to form unions and associations to protect their professional interests under Article 13 (“Journal Officiel De La République Du Mali” 1974, 2). The freedom to form all associations is found in Mali’s current 1992 constitution under Article 5 (Mali 1992).

“Journal Officiel De La République Du Mali” 1974. https://sgg-mali.ml/JO/1974/mali-jo-1974-440.pdf Mali 1992. “Mali 1992 Constitution” Constitute

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Mali_1992
MaltaFreedom of AssociationAchieving its independence as the State of Malta in September of 1964, the country adopted a constitution that included a provision guaranteeing its citizens the right to freedom of association. Article 32 of Chapter IV of the 1964 constitution states that every person in Malta is entitled to the freedom of “peaceful assembly and association” (Mali 1964).

Mali. “Mali 1964 (rev. 2016) Constitution.” Constitute 1964

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Malta_2016
Marshall IslandsFreedom of AssociationWritten before they gained formal independence in 1986, the 1979 Constitution of the Marshall Islands ensures freedom of association to every person. The right to freedom of association is included in the Bill or Rights found under Section 1 of Article II of the Constitution (Marshall Islands 1979)

Marshall Islands. “Marshall Islands 1979 (rev. 1995) Constitution.” Constitute 1979

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Marshall_Islands_1995
MauritaniaFreedom of AssociationThe country’s 1964 Law of Associations acknowledges the existence of associations within Mauritania’s legal code, though it requires them to be registered and authorized by the government. It “gives the Ministry of Interior far-reaching powers to refuse such permission on vague grounds” (MENA Rights Groups 2021). Mauritania’s original constitution, adopted in 1961, affirmed the country’s commitment to the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789) which discusses political associations, but does not explicitly state its commitment to the right (Mauritanie 1961).

Mauritanie. “Constitution du 20 mai 1961” Digithéque MJP 1961 https://mjp.univ-perp.fr/constit/mr1961.htm MENA Rights Groups. “Mauritania’s human rights record examined by UN Member States” MENA Rights

2021 https://menarights.org/en/articles/mauritanias-human-rights-record-examined-un-member-
MauritiusFreedom of AssociationThe Constitution of Mauritius, adopted in 1968 after the country’s independence, protects the right to association. This provision is found in section 3 “Fundamental rights and freedoms of an individual” under Chapter II of the Constitution. (Mauritius 1968)

Mauritius. “Mauritius 1968 (rev. 2016) Constitution” Constitute 1968

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Mauritius_2016
MexicoFreedom of AssociationThe Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States, put in place after the end of the dictatorship of Antonio López de Santa Anna in 1857, greatly expanded human rights in the country. Though it does not explicitly mention association, it refers to related rights. Section 1, Article 9 states, “No one shall be deprived of the right peaceably to assemble or to come together for any lawful purpose; but only citizens shall be permitted to exercise this right for the purpose of taking part in the political affairs of the country” (“Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1857.” 2023). “Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1857.” 2023. Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1857, World History Commons. Accessed July 14. https://worldhistorycommons.org/federal-constitution-united-mexican-states-1857.
MoldovaFreedom of AssociationAfter its independence from the Soviet Union, Moldova ratified its constitution in 1994 and protected the right to freedom of association. Article 41 of the constitution states that all citizens “shall be free to associate in parties and other socio-political organizations” and outlines the freedom’s restrictions. (Moldova 1994).

Moldova. “Moldova (Republic of) 1994 (rev. 2016)” Constitute 1994

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Moldova_2016
MonacoFreedom of AssociationMonaco’s constitution, first adopted in 1911 and then heavily revised in 1962, protects the right to freedom of association in the country. Article 30 states that freedom of association is guaranteed by law, though subject to regulation of law (Monaco 1911).

Monaco. “Constitution of the Principality of Monaco” Council of Europe 1911

https://www.venice.coe.int/webforms/documents/default.aspx?pdffile=CDL-REF(2013)021-e
MongoliaFreedom of AssociationThe earliest assertion of the right to freedom of association in Mongolia’s legal system can be found in the 1940 Constitution of the Mongolian People’s Republic, when the country was a socialist state. Article 82 grants citizens the right to “unite in public organizations,” which includes trade unions, cooperative associations, youth organizations, sports and defense organizations, cultural, technical, and scientific societies (Anon 19948. 199). The modren Mongolian state also protects freedom of association in its 1992 Constitution in Article 10 (Mongolia 1992).

Anon. Far Eastern Section, “Constitution of the Mongol People's Republic”, 23 Wash. L. Rev. & St. B.J. 181 (1948). Mongolia. “Mongolia 1992 (rev. 2001)” Constitute 1992

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Mongolia_2001
MontenegroFreedom of AssociationAccording to Article 212 of the 1905 Montenegro Constitution: "Citizens have the right to assemble in peace according

to the law." Article 213 of the 1905 Constitution augments this point: "Citizens have the right of assembly when it concerns objects which are not contrary to the laws."

After Montenegro’s formal independence and separation from its union with Serbia in 2006, the country adopted a constitution the following year that included an article on freedom of association. The right is granted to all Montenegro citizens in Article 53 (Montenegro 2007). Montenegro’s earlier constitution, adopted after the breakup of Yugoslavia in 1992, includes a provision promoting freedom of association in Article 40 (“Constitution of the Republic of Montenegro” 1992)

1905 Montenegro Constitution: English translation from the French text of the original Constitution of 1905 "Part 14: The Constitutional Rights of Montenegrin Citizens," Constitution of 6/19 December 1905. (1905): 426-427: https://heinonline-org.mutex.gmu.edu/HOL/Page?handle=hein.cow/zzmb0013&id=20&collection=cow&index=

“Constitution of the Republic of Montenegro” 1992: https://www.venice.coe.int/webforms/documents/?pdf=CDL(2005)096-e

Montenegro. “Montenegro 2007” Constitute 2007: https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Montenegro_2007
MoroccoFreedom of AssociationThe earliest assertion of the rights to freedom of association in Morocco is found in a 1958 decree, dhahir 1-58-376. The law gives citizens the right to form associations, with Article 5 setting “forth the procedure for declaring an association and maintaining its declared status” (Human Rights Watch 2009, 7).

Human Rights Watch. 2009 “Morocco: Freedom to Create Associations”

https://www.hrw.org/reports/morocco1009webwcover.pdf
MozambiqueFreedom of AssociationAfter its independence from Portugal in 1975, the People’s Republic of Mozambique established a socialist state with a constitution that protected freedom of association in its first constitution under Article 27 (Mozambique 1990. 9). In 1990 a new constitution was put into place that reformed the country into its present form, with Article 34 ensuring freedom of association to all (“Constitution of the People’s Republic of Mozambique” 17)

“The Constitution of the People’s Republic of Mozambique.” 2023. Mozambique History. https://mozambiquehistory.net/justice/constitution/19800000_english_constitution.pdf.

Mozambique “Constitution of Mozambique” 1990
MyanmarFreedom of AssociationMyanmar’s first constitution, created and adopted in 1947 after its independence, contains the earliest provision protecting the right to freedom of association in the country. Found in Section iii of Article 17, it allows citizens to form and join associations, as long as their goal is not to undermine the Constitution (“The Constitution of the Union of Burma” 1948, 3).

“The Constitution of the Union of Burma” 1948 Myanmar Law Library

http://www.myanmar-law-library.org/law-library/laws-and-regulations/constitutions/1947
NamibiaFreedom of AssociationAdopted in 1990, shortly before Namibia’s independence from South Africa, The Constitution of the Republic of Namibia contains the first assertion of the right to freedom of association in the country’s legal code. Provision e of Article 21 guarantees the right to join and form associations, including political parties and trade unions (Namibia 1990).

Namibia. 1990 “Namibia 1990 (rev. 2014)” Constitute

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Namibia_2014
NauruFreedom of AssociationNauru’s Constitution of 1968 explicitly mentions the right to freedom of association in its preamble, as well as in Section 1, 2, and 3 of Article 13. Written shortly after national independence, it is the earliest assertion of this right in the country (Nauru 1968)

Nauru. 1968 “Nauru’s Constitution of 1968” Constitute

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Nauru_1968.pdf?lang=en
NepalFreedom of AssociationThe Nepal Interim Government Act of 1951, put into effect after the Revolution of 1951, proclaims that all citizens have the right to form associations and unions. This is found under Section c of Article 17: Fundamental principles of law (Nepal 1951, 3)

Nepal. 1951 “The Interim Government of Nepal Act, 1951” Constitutionnet

https://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/1951%20Constitution%20English.pdf
New ZealandFreedom of AssociationPart 2 Section 17 of the Bill of Rights Act ( 1990) states that, “Everyone has the right to freedom of association.”

Although New Zealand does not have a codified constitution, the first explicit mention of freedom of association in New Zealand law is the Bill of Rights Act of 1990, Article 17 of which states that “everyone has the right to freedom of association.” The country had earlier promised to uphold freedom of association by its 1978 ratification of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which protects this right in Article 22.

“International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.” Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, July 24, 2023, https://www.ohchr.org/en/instruments-mechanisms/instruments/international-covenant-civil-and-political-rights#:~:text=Article%2019,-1.&text=Everyone%20shall%20have%20the%20right,other%20media%20of%20his%20choice.

New Zealand Legislation. “New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990.” Parliamentary Counsel Office, July 24, 2023, https://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1990/0109/latest/DLM224792.html.

UN Treaty Body Database. “Ratification Status for CCPR – International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.” Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, July 24, 2023, https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/TreatyBodyExternal/Treaty.aspx?Treaty=CCPR&Lang=en.
NicaraguaFreedom of AssociationThe first mention of freedom of association in Nicaraguan law is found in the 1838 Political Constitution of the Sovereign, Free, and Independent State of Nicaragua, promulgated shortly after the country’s final independence. In Article 14, the constitution states that “popular gatherings that have as [their] object any honest pleasure, the discussion concerning politics, or to examine the public conduct of the [state] functionaries” cannot be impeded. “Political Constitution of the Sovereign, Free, and Independent State of Nicaragua.” World Constitutions Illustrated, July 24, 2023, https://heinonline-org.ccl.idm.oclc.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.cow/zzni0040&collection=cow.
NigerFreedom of AssociationFreedom of association is found in the first Constitution of Niger, enacted in 1960 shortly after independence. Under Article 7, “political parties and groups shall be instrumental in the expression of the suffrage. They shall be formed and shall carry on their activities freely on condition that they respect the principles of national sovereignty and democracy and the laws of the Republic.” “Constitution of Niger.” World Constitutions Illustrated, July 24, 2023, https://heinonline-org.ccl.idm.oclc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzne0002&id=1&men_tab=srchresults.
NigeriaFreedom of AssociationChapter IV Section 37 of the constitution of the Second Republic ( 1979) states that “every person shall be entitled to assemble freely and associate with other persons, and any political party, trade union, or other association for the protection of his interests.”

Freedom of association is enumerated in the first constitution of independent Nigeria, enacted in 1960. Under Article 25, “every person shall be entitled to … associate with other persons and in particular he may form or belong to trade unions and other associations for the protection of his interests.” The article subsequently lays out broad reservations on this article, precluding its application to laws “reasonably justifiable in a democratic society” that are in the interest of “defense, public safety, public order, public morality, or public health,” as well as those “for the purpose of protecting the rights and freedoms of other persons.”

“The Constitution of the Federation of Nigeria.” World Constitutions Illustrated, July 24, 2023, https://heinonline-org.ccl.idm.oclc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzng0011&id=1&men_tab=srchresults.
North KoreaFreedom of AssociationThe Constitution of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, adopted in 1948, purports to grant freedom of association to its citizens. Under Article 13, citizens have the freedom of “assembly, and freedom to form associations, or participate in public demonstrations.” The article specifically says that “every citizen shall have the freedom of organizing and joining democratic political parties, trade unions, cooperative associations, and physical culture, cultural, technical, and scientific organizations.” Central Intelligence Agency. “Constitution of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.” World Constitutions Illustrated, July 24, 2023, https://heinonline-org.ccl.idm.oclc.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.cow/zzkp0005&collection=cow.
North MacedoniaFreedom of AssociationFreedom of association is enumerated in the constitution of the Republic of North Macedonia, passed in 1991 shortly after independence from Yugoslavia (when the country was called the Republic of Macedonia). Under Article 20, “citizens are guaranteed freedom of association to exercise and protect their political, economic, social, cultural and other rights and convictions.” Citizens may “freely establish associations of citizens and political parties, join them, or resign from them.” Earlier, the 1946 Constitution of the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia, of which North Macedonia was a constituent republic as the People’s Republic of Macedonia, protected freedom of association in Articles 20 and 27.

“Constitution of the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia.” World Constitutions Illustrated, July 24, 2023, https://heinonline-org.ccl.idm.oclc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/cyugo0001&id=11&men_tab=srchresults.

“Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia.” World Constitutions Illustrated, July 24, 2023, https://heinonline-org.ccl.idm.oclc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzmk0010&id=10&men_tab=srchresults.
NorwayFreedom of AssociationThe Constitution of Norway, which was initially enacted in 1814 (making it the world’s second oldest constitution to still be in effect today, after the United States Constitution), was amended around 2014 to guarantee the right to freedom of association. Under Article 101, “everyone has the right to form, join, and leave associations, including trade unions and political parties.” Before this, Norway pledged to uphold freedom of association when it ratified the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in 1972.

“The Constitution, as laid down on 17 May 1814 by the Constituent Assembly at Eidsvoll and subsequently amended, most recently in May 2014.” World Constitutions Illustrated, July 24, 2023, https://heinonline-org.ccl.idm.oclc.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.cow/zzno0023&id=1&collection=cow&index=.

UN Treaty Body Database. “Ratification Status for CCPR – International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.” Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, July 24, 2023, https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/TreatyBodyExternal/Treaty.aspx?Treaty=CCPR&Lang=en.
OmanFreedom of AssociationLimited freedom of association is protected under the Basic Statute of the State, instituted in 1996, which effectively functions as a constitution for Oman. Under Article 33, “the freedom of forming societies on a national basis and for legitimate objectives and by peaceful means – provided that it is not in conflict with the provisions and objectives of this Basic Statute – is guaranteed in accordance with the terms and conditions stipulated by the [Statute].” Further, “it is prohibited to form societies the activities of which are adverse to the order of society, secret or of a military nature.” “The Basic Statute of the State.” World Constitutions Illustrated, July 24, 2023, https://heinonline-org.ccl.idm.oclc.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.cow/zzom0002&id=1&collection=cow&index=.
PakistanFreedom of AssociationThe following is from Part II, Chapter I, Section 17 of Pakistan’s current constitution ( 1973) .

“Every citizen shall have the right to form associations or unions, subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interest of sovereignty or integrity of Pakistan, public order or morality.”

“Every citizen, not being in the service of Pakistan, shall have the right to form or be a member of a political party, subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interest of the sovereignty or integrity of Pakistan and such law shall provide that where the Federal Government declares that any political party has been formed or is operating in a manner prejudicial to the sovereignty or integrity of Pakistan, the Federal Government shall, within fifteen days of such declaration, refer the matter to the Supreme Court whose decision on such reference shall be final.”

A limited form of freedom of association is provided by the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, enacted shortly after Pakistan became a republic in 1956. Under Article 10, “every citizen shall have the right to form associations or unions, subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interest of morality or public order.”

“Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.” World Constitutions Illustrated, July 24, 2023, https://heinonline-org.ccl.idm.oclc.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.cow/zzpk0008&collection=cow.
PalauFreedom of AssociationPalau protects freedom of association in the Constitution of the Republic of Palau, enacted in 1981. Under Article IV, Section 3, “the government shall take no action to deny or impair the right of any person to … associate with others for any lawful purpose including the right to organize and to bargain collectively.” “Constitution of the Republic of Palau.” World Constitutions Illustrated, July 24, 2023, https://heinonline-org.ccl.idm.oclc.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.cow/zzpu0001&id=5&collection=cow&index=.
PanamaFreedom of AssociationFreedom of association is protected under the first constitution of Panama, enacted in 1904 shortly after the country’s independence. Article 20 guarantees Panamanians’ right to “to form associations for all the legitimate purposes of life.” Comparative Constitutions Project. “Constitution of the Republic of Panama.” World Constitutions Illustrated, July 24, 2023, https://heinonline-org.ccl.idm.oclc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzpa0048&id=1&men_tab=srchresults.
Papua New GuineaFreedom of AssociationPapua New Guinea makes provision for freedom of association in its constitution, enacted upon independence in 1975. Under Section 47, every individual has the right to freely associate with “political parties, industrial organizations, or other associations.” This right, however, is listed under the heading of “qualified rights,” so that its application is subjected to several qualifications laid out in Section 38. “Constitution of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea.” World Constitutions Illustrated, July 24, 2023, https://heinonline-org.ccl.idm.oclc.org/HOL/COWShow?collection=cow&cow_id=322.
ParaguayFreedom of AssociationFreedom of association is recognized in Paraguayan law in the 1870 constitution. Under Article 18, Paraguayans have the right to “associate with each other for useful purposes,” though “subject to the proper rules and regulations.” Comparative Constitutions Project. “Constitution of the Republic of Paraguay.” World Constitutions Illustrated, July 24, 2023, https://heinonline-org.ccl.idm.oclc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzpy0009&id=2&men_tab=srchresults.
PeruFreedom of AssociationPeru protects freedom of association in the Political Constitution of the Republic of Peru, promulgated in 1856. According to Article XXVIII, “all citizens possess the right of meeting together peaceably, whether in public or in private, provided public order be not compromised.” British and Foreign State Papers (1856-1857). “Political Constitution of the Republic of Peru – Lima, October 13, 1856.” World Constitutions Illustrated, July 24, 2023, https://heinonline-org.ccl.idm.oclc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/bfsprs0047&id=1171.
PhilippinesFreedom of AssociationThe constitution of the First Philippine Republic, also known as the Malolos Constitution and passed in 1899 during the struggle for independence from Spain, represents the first mention of freedom of association in Philippine law. Under Article 20, no Filipino may be deprived of the “right of association for purposes of human life and which are not contrary to public morals.” The LawPhil Project. “1899 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines (Malolos Convention).” Arellano Law Foundation, July 24, 2023, https://lawphil.net/consti/consmalo.html.
PolandFreedom of AssociationFreedom of association was initially protected in the 1921 constitution, passed following the establishment of the first modern Polish state in the aftermath of World War I. Article 108 says that citizens have “the right of meeting and of association, as well as that of founding societies and unions;” it then says that “the application of these rights is regulated by law.” “The Constitution of the Polish Republic.” World Constitutions Illustrated, July 24, 2023, https://heinonline-org.ccl.idm.oclc.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.cow/zzpl0051&collection=cow.
PortugalFreedom of AssociationArticle 46 of the Portugese Constitution ( 1976) :

“Citizens shall possess the right to freely associate with one another without requiring any authorisation, on condition that such associations are not intended to promote violence and their purposes are not contrary to the criminal law.”

“Associations shall pursue their purposes freely and without interference from the public authorities and shall not be dissolved by the state or have their activities suspended, except in such cases as the law may provide for and then only by judicial order.”

“No one shall be obliged to belong to an association, or be coerced to remain therein by any means.”

“Armed associations, military, militarised or paramilitary-type associations and organisations that are racist or display a fascist ideology shall not be permitted.”

Portugal first protected freedom of association in the Constitution of the Portuguese Monarchy, promulgated in 1838. Under Article XIV, “all citizens have the right of assembling together conformably to the laws.” The article subsequently lays out specifications for how it is to be applied, and concludes with “a special law shall regulate, in other respects, the exercise of this right.”

British and Foreign State Papers (1838-1839). “Constitution of the Portuguese Monarchy – Promulgated at Lisbon, April 4, 1838.” World Constitutions Illustrated, July 24, 2023, https://heinonline-org.ccl.idm.oclc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/bfsprs0027&id=775&men_tab=srchresults.
QatarFreedom of AssociationThe first mention of freedom of association in Qatar’s laws is found in the Permanent Constitution of the State of Qatar, promulgated in 2004. Article 45 says that “the right of citizens to establish association is guaranteed in accordance with the conditions and circumstances set forth in the law.” Qatar Ministry of Foreign Affairs. “Permanent Constitution of the State of Qatar.” World Constitutions Illustrated, July 24, 2023, https://heinonline-org.ccl.idm.oclc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzqa0002&id=2&men_tab=srchresults.
Republic of IrelandFreedom of AssociationFreedom of association is conditionally protected “personal liberty” under Article 40, Section 6, Subsection 1.iii of the 1937 Irish Constitution which states that “The right of the citizens to form associations and unions [is a guaranteed liberty]. Laws, however, may be enacted for the regulation and control in the public interest of the exercise of the foregoing right” (constituteproject.org). “Ireland 1937 (Rev. 2019) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 19, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Ireland_2019.
Republic of the CongoFreedom of AssociationAccording to Article 10 of the 1963 Constitution of the Republic of the Congo, "Freedom of association is guaranteed to all under the conditions established by law. Meetings or groups whose purpose or activity would be illegal or contrary to public order shall be prohibited." 1963 Constitution of the Republic of the Congo: English translation of the French original text of the Constitution of Constitution of the Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville), December 8, 1963. 87 (2016) Title II: Public Liberties and Liberties of the Human Person: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzcg0022&id=2&men_tab=srchresults
RomaniaFreedom of AssociationRomania protects freedom of association in its first constitution, adopted in 1866. Under Article 27, “Romanians have the right to associate, [in accordance with] the laws that regulate the exercise of this right.” “Constitutiunea Romaniei din 1866.” Constitutia Romaniei, July 24, 2023, https://www.constitutia.ro/const1866.htm.
RussiaFreedom of AssociationPossibly the first mention of freedom of association in the law of the Russian state is in the October Manifesto, issued by Tsar Nicholas II in response to the mass unrest of the Revolution of 1905. The Manifesto pledged to guarantee to all Russian citizens “the essential foundations of civil freedom, based on the principles of genuine inviolability of the person, freedom of conscience, speech, assembly, and association.” “Manifesto of October 17, 1905.” Seton Hall University, July 24, 2023, https://academic.shu.edu/russianhistory/index.php/Manifesto_of_October_17th,_1905#:~:text=The%20disturbances%20that%20have%20taken,is%20dangerous%20to%20Our%20state.
RwandaFreedom of AssociationRwanda provides for freedom of association in its 1962 constitution, promulgated shortly after independence. Under Article 19, “all citizens have the right to freely form associations or societies, subject to… the formalities [laid down by] laws and regulations.” Nouvelles Constitutions Africaines. “Constitution de la Republique Rwandaise.” World Constitutions Illustrated, July 24, 2023, https://heinonline-org.ccl.idm.oclc.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.cow/noucoaf0001&collection=cow&index=alpha/N_cowbooks&id=15.
Saint Kitts and NevisFreedom of AssociationChapter 2 Article 13 specifies the protection of freedom of assembly and association. Saint Kitts and Nevis became fully independent from Britain in 1983. The constitution was adopted the same year. Also in this section are the conditions under which limitations of this freedom may be imposed. The Government of St. Kitts and Nevis. “The Constitution of Saint Christopher and Nevis. 2023. https://www.gov.kn/the-constitution/
Saint LuciaFreedom of AssociationChapter 1 Article 11 of the Constitution of Saint Lucia regards freedom of association and assembly. Saint Lucia became independent from the British Commonwealth in February 1979, however, the Constitution was drafted in 1978, then coming into operation on the day of independence.

Georgetown University. “Saint Lucia Constitutional Order 1978” https://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Lucia/Luc78.html

Saint Lucia “let her inspire you.” History and culture. https://www.stlucia.org/en/discover-saint-lucia/history-culture/
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesFreedom of AssociationChapter 1 Article 11 specifies the protection of freedom of assembly and association. Autonomy was granted in 1969 and the first draft of the constitution was written. When complete independence was gained in 1979, The constitution was revised and adopted.

Constitution of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1979. Organization of American States. http://www.oas.org/es/sla/dlc/mesicic/docs/mesicic4_svg_const.pdf

CIA World Factbook. Saint Vincent and The Grenadines. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/saint-vincent-and-the-grenadines/
SamoaFreedom of AssociationPart 2 Section 13 of the Constitution lists the rights regarding freedom of speech, assembly, association, movement and residence. The Constitution was first drafted in 1954, in a constitutional convention with New Zealand. The Final draft was approved in 1962, The year of independence.

Britannica. Samoa https://www.britannica.com/place/Samoa-island-nation-Pacific-Ocean/History

CONSTITUTION OF THE INDEPENDENT STATE OF SAMOA. International Labour Organization. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/44021/124322/F-82949215/WSM44021.pdf
San MarinoFreedom of AssociationArticle 6 of The Declaration of Citizens' Rights and of the fundamental principles of the San Marinese legal order specifies Freedom of Association. The Constitution of San Marino, from 1600, does not specify the individual rights so the Declaration of Citizen’s Rights and fundamental principles of San Marino was adopted on July 8,1974.

Declaration of Citizens Rights and Fundamental Principles of San Marino. Rights of Assembly. https://www.rightofassembly.info/assets/downloads/1974_Constitution_of_San_Marino.pdf

CIA World Factbook. San Marino. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/san-marino/
Saudi ArabiaFreedom of AssociationSaudi Arabia is an absolute monarchy with heavy restriction of civil liberties. According to the US State Department, as of 2022, Saudi Arabia’s law “provides for limited freedom of assembly and association, but the government did not respect these rights.”

“2022 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Saudi Arabia. U.S. Department of State. https://www.state.gov/reports/2022-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/saudi-arabia/

CIA World Factbook. Saudi Arabia. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/saudi-arabia/#government

Constitution of Saudi Arabia. University of Minnesota. http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/research/saudiarabia/saudi-constitution.html

Freedom House. World Freedom Report. Saudi Arabia https://freedomhouse.org/country/saudi-arabia/freedom-world/2022
SenegalFreedom of AssociationTitle II article 8 covers freedom of association along with, opinion, expression, press, assembly, movement, and manifestation in the Constitution of the Republic of Senegal. Independence was gained from France in 1960, The constitution was adopted in 1963, most recently promulgated in 2001.

CIA World Factbook. Senegal https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/senegal/#government

Constitution of the republic of Senegal. Translated. https://wipolex-res.wipo.int/edocs/lexdocs/laws/en/sn/sn014en.pdf
SerbiaFreedom of AssociationSerbia became independent in 2006 from the state union of Serbia and Montenegro. The 2006 constitution covers freedom of association under article 55 of the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia. However, The 1931 Constitution of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia covers freedom of association in Chapter II, Article 13.

International Labour Organization. Constitution of the Republic of Serbia. 2006. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/74694/119555/F838981147/SRB74694%20Eng.pdf

Constitution of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. 1931. https://royalfamily.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/constitution.pdf
SeychellesFreedom of AssociationChapter III article 22 of The Constitution of Seychelles (1976) covers freedom of association along with freedom of assembly. Seychelles gained independence from the United Kingdom in the same year of 1976. The constitution was redrafted in 1993, now covering the freedom of association under Article 23 of Chapter III.

CIA World Factbook. Seychelles. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/seychelles/#government

Seychelles Independence Order 1976. Constitution of Seychelles 1976. http://citizenshiprightsafrica.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/Seychelles-Independence-Constitution-1976.pdf

Constitute Project. Constitution of Seychelles 1993. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Seychelles_2017
Sierra LeoneFreedom of AssociationThe 1991 Constitution of Sierra Leone covers freedom of association in chapter III Article 15.A.

THE CONSTITUTION OF SIERRA LEONE. International Labour Organization. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/26723/90483/F311875481/SLE26723.pdf

Constitutional History of Sierra Leone. Constitution Net. https://constitutionnet.org/country/sierra-leone
SingaporeFreedom of AssociationFreedom of Association is mentioned in Article 14.1.C. of the Constitution of Singapore 1965. Singapore gained independence in 1965 From the Malaysian Federation, and the Constitution was revised from the 1963 Constitution of the State of Singapore. It states that restictions may be imposed by any law relating to labour or education.

Constitution of the Republic of Singapore. 1965. Singapore Statutes Online. https://sso.agc.gov.sg/Act/CONS1963?ProvIds=P14-#pr14-

CIA World Factbook. Singapore https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/singapore/#government

Constitution of the State of Singapore. 1963. https://media.bloomsburyprofessional.com/rep/files/singapore-constitution-1963.pdf
SlovakiaFreedom of AssociationOf the 1920 Constitution of Czechoslovakia, Section V article 113 covers freedom of association. Slovakia and The Czech Republic became independent states in 1993 and the independent constitution came into force October 1, 1992. Freedom of Association is covered in Section 3, Article 29, as a Political right rather than a Fundamental Human Right or Freedom, which is covered by section 2.

CONSTITUTION OF THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC. https://www.prezident.sk/upload-files/46422.pdf

University of California Press. New York Times Current History. The Constitution of Czechoslovakia: Full Text of the Most Modern and Complete Instrument of Democratic Self-Government. https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/45325393.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A4f1bbc1d288238311128e70a46ae2b12&ab_segments=&origin=&initiator=&acceptTC=1

CIA World Factbook. Slovakia. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/slovakia/#government
SloveniaFreedom of AssociationThe 1931 Constitution of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia asserts the right to form associations under Chapter II, Article 13. Slovenia gained independence in 1991, The 1991 Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia covers freedom of association in Chapter II, Article 42.

Constitute Project. Republic of Slovenia 1991. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Slovenia_2013.pdf

The Constitution of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. 1931.https://royalfamily.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/constitution.pdf
Solomon IslandsFreedom of AssociationChapter 2 Article 13 Of the Constitution of the Solomon Islands covers the protection of freedom of association and assembly. The Constitution was adopted 31 of may, 1978 and effective July 7, 1978, when The country gained independence from the United Kingdom.

CIA World Factbook. Solomon Islands.https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/solomon-islands/#government

Constitute Project. Constitution of the Solomon Islands. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Solomon_Islands_2018
SomaliaFreedom of AssociationPart II, Article 12, of the 1960 Constitution of the Somali Republic covers the right to political association. Article 12 Section 2 states, Political parties and associations which are secret, have an organization of a military character or have a tribal denomination shall be prohibited. Article 13 separately covers the right to form trade unions. The Somali Republic was formed July 1, 1960, gaining independence from the United Kingdom(Somalia), and Italy(Somoliland).

CIA World Factbook. Somalia. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/somalia/#government

Constitution of the Somali Republic. http://citizenshiprightsafrica.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Somalia-Constitution-1960.pdf
South AfricaFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of Freedom of Association in South Africa was in the 1993 Interim Constitution, under Chapter III, Article 17. This Constitution was drafted during the transition to democratic processes leading up to the first post-apartheid elections in 1994, and came into force April 27, 1994, the day of the election.

CIA World Factbook. South Africa. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/south-africa/#government

United Nations. Peacemaker. SOUTH AFRICA INTERIM CONSTITUTION (1993). https://peacemaker.un.org/documents/south-africa-interim-constitution-1993
South KoreaFreedom of AssociationArticle 21 of Chapter II of The Constitution of the Republic of Korea covers Freedom of Association, with the specification that licensing of assembly and association shall not be recognized. The 1948 constitution was adopted upon independence from Japan.

Constitutional History of the Republic of Korea. Constitution Net. 2018. https://constitutionnet.org/country/republic-korea Constitute Project. Constitution of Republic of Korea. 1948. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Republic_of_Korea_1987

Britannica. Division of Korea. https://www.britannica.com/place/Korea/Division-of-Korea
South SudanFreedom of AssociationThe Bill of Rights, Part II of the Interim Constitution of Southern Sudan, first mentions freedom of Association under article 40. The Interim Constitution of Southern Sudan was adopted in 2005, prior to independence from Sudan in 2011.

CIA World FactBook. South Sudan. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/south-sudan/#government

The interim Constitution of Southern Sudan. 2005. https://www.refworld.org/pdfid/4ba74c4a2.pdf
SpainFreedom of AssociationThe First assertion of freedom of association in Spain was in the 1978 Constitution. It is covered in section 22, of Division I. “The right of association is granted” However the limitations of this right are listed in the following 4 clauses, including the prohibition of secret and paramilitary associations. European University Institute. Spanish Constitution. 1978. https://www.eui.eu/projects/internationalartheritagelaw/documents/nationallegislation/spain/spanishconstitution1978.pdf
Sri LankaFreedom of AssociationChapter III, Article 14 of the Constitution adopted in 1978, allows for freedom of Association along with freedoms of speech, assembly, occupation, and movement. Section 1.c-g covers the circumstances of freedom of association.

CIA World Factbook. Sri Lanka. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/sri-lanka/#government

Constitute Project. Constitution of Sri Lanka 1978. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Sri_Lanka_2015?lang=en
SudanFreedom of AssociationThe 1998 Constitution of The Republic of Sudan, does not explicitly mention freedom of association, however, Article 26 protects the freedom of succession and organization which is understood to be freedom of Association. The Following draft in the 2005 Constitution does specify freedom of association in article 40.

CIA World Factbook. Sudan. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/sudan/#government

Prior Constitution of The Republic of Sudan. 1998. University of Minnesota, Human Rights Library. http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/research/sudpriorconst.html

Constitute Project. Constitution of the Republic of Sudan. 2005. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Sudan_2005
SurinameFreedom of AssociationThe 1987 Constitution of the Republic of Suriname promulgates freedom of association under Chapter 5, Article 20. Organization of American States. Republic of Suriname Constitution 1987, http://www.oas.org/juridico/pdfs/mesicic4_sur_const.pdf
SwedenFreedom of AssociationFreedom of association is asserted in the 1974 Instrument of Government under chapter 2, article 1, section 5.

CIA World Factbook. Sweden https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/sweden/#government

CONSTITUTION OF SWEDEN (1974). The Instrument of Government. https://www.equalrightstrust.org/ertdocumentbank/CONSTITUTION%20OF%20SWEDEN.pdf
SwitzerlandFreedom of AssociationFirst assertion of freedom of association in Switzerland was in the first Constitution of 1848. Freedom of association is guaranteed under article XLVI of Chapter 1, granted the proceedings nor objects of associations are not illegal. Swiss Parlament https://www.parlament.ch/centers/documents/de/BV_1848_EN.pdf
SyriaFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of Freedom of Association in Syria was in the 2012 Constitution of the Syrian Arab Republic. It is covered under Title II, Chapter I, Article 45. The Article articulates that the associations or unions should have a national basis, for lawful purposes and peaceful means, and should adhere to the terms and conditions prescribed by law.

Constitution Net. Syria. 2021. https://constitutionnet.org/country/syria CIA World factbook. Syria. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/syria/#government

International Labour Organization. Constitution of The Syrian Arab Republic - 2012. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/91436/106031/F-931434246/constitution2.pdf
São Tomé and PríncipeFreedom of AssociationPart II article 35 covers the freedom of association in the Constitution of São Tomé e Principe. The country gained independence from Portugal in July 1975, adopting the constitution November 5, 1975.

CIA World Factbook. São Tomé e Príncipehttps://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/sao-tome-and-principe/

Constitution of Sao Tome e Principe. Constitute Project. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Sao_Tome_and_Principe_1990
TajikistanFreedom of AssociationThe constitution of 1994 of Tajikistan recognizes the freedom of association in Article 28 and is cited to ‘correspond to democratic norms’. Article 8 of the constitution states citizens may form associations that only function and exist within the framework of the constitution.

Tajikistan, Supreme Assembly. 2016. Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan.

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Tajikistan_2016.pdf?lang=en. (Orig. pub. 1994.).
TanzaniaFreedom of AssociationTanzania’s constitution of 1977 article 20 provides every person the freedom to associate. The article highlights five restrictions to the freedom of association which include: violent associations, tribal or religious political associations, and the breakdown of the United Republic. Judiciary of Tanzania. 2005. THE CONSTITUTION of the UNITED REPUBLIC of TANZANIA. Www.judiciary.go.tz. http://www.judiciary.go.tz/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/constitution.pdf. (Orig. pub. 1977.).
ThailandFreedom of AssociationThailand has had multiple constitutions since 1932 after the abolition of the absolute monarchy. Section 42 of the latest constitution of Thailand (2017) highlights the ‘liberty to unite and form an association, co-operative, union, organisation, community, or any other group.’ Provision 14 of the 1932 Constitution also highlighted the right to association.Thailand Constitution. 1932. https://media.bloomsburyprofessional.com/rep/files/thailand-constitution-1932-december.pdf. Constitution Drafting Committee. 2017. Constitution of Thailand. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/103607/132859/F-1348511433/THA103607%202019.pdf.
The BahamasFreedom of AssociationAccording to Article 24(1) of the 1973 Bahamas Constitution "Except with his consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of peaceful assembly and association, that is to say, his right to assemble freely and associate with other persons and in particular to form or belong to political parties, or to form or belong to trade unions or other association for the protection of his interests." Article 24(2) describes potential grounds or conditions for exception to this right: "Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this Article to the extent that the law in question makes provision- (a) which is reasonably required- (i) in the interest of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health; or (ii) for the purpose of protecting the rights and freedoms of other persons; or (b) which imposes restriction upon person s holding office under the Crown or upon members of a discipline force, and except so far as that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society."

References:

1973 Bahamas Constitution: https://www.bahamas.gov.bs/wps/wcm/connect/04fb4632-1bd7-414f-b66e-9c499b382480/Chap+3+Protection+rights+and+freedoms.pdf?MOD=AJPERES
The GambiaFreedom of AssociationThe first assertion of the freedom for association in Gambia was in their Constitution within their Independence Order of 1965, ratified February 18th. The independence order was submitted to Great Britain, and the right to association was included in Section 3, Chapter II, Article 11 (“The Gambia Independence Order 1965”, 1965). 1965. The Gambia Independence Order 1965. February 18. https://citizenshiprightsafrica.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/Gambia-Constitution-1965.pdf.
TogoFreedom of AssociationThe constitution of the fourth republic of Togo adapted in 1992 and revised in 2007 details in article 30 the right of association, assembly, and peaceful demonstration without violence. Togo. 2007. The 1963 constitution does not address freedom of association. “Togo 1992 (Rev. 2007) Constitution - Constitute.” Www.constituteproject.org. 2007. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Togo_2007.
TongaFreedom of AssociationThe Tongan constitution was adopted in 1875 and was last revised in 2020. The constitution does not explicitly state a freedom of association, rather the freedom of assembly in Article 8 which highlights ‘The Freedom of Petition’ in which all people are free to peacefully send letters and petitions to the legislators and king. Kingdom of Tonga. 2021. CONSTITUTION of TONGA. https://www.parliament.gov.to/parliamentary-business/documents/constitution-of-tonga/file/487-act-of-constitution-of-tonga-2020-revised-edition. (Orig. pub. 1875.).
Trinidad and TobagoFreedom of AssociationThe Trinidad and Tobago constitution Act of 1976 revised last in 2007 declares the rights enshrined in the constitution in Chapter 1 Part 1 article 4j which details: ) the ‘freedom of association and assembly’. Trinidad and Tobago. 1978. “THE CONSTITUTION of the REPUBLIC of TRINIDAD and TOBAGO.” https://www.oas.org/juridico/english/mesicic3_tto_constitution.pdf.
TunisiaFreedom of AssociationThe Tunisian Constitution of 2014 (Arabic: 2014 دستور تونس) was adopted on 26 January 2014, article 35 of the constitution guarantees the freedom of establishment of political parties, unions, and associations while respecting financial transparency and the rejection of any incitement of violence. Tunisia had included the right of freedom of association after independence from France in 1959 as part of Article 8. The original short lived 1861 constitution does not highlight any freedom of association.

Bourguiba, Habib. 1959. “WIPO Lex, Tunisia, the Constitution of Tunisia, 1959.” Www.wipo.int. 1959. https://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/legislation/details/7201.

National Parliament. 2014. “WIPO Lex, Tunisia, the Constitution of the Republic of Tunisia, 2014.” Www.wipo.int. 2014. https://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/legislation/details/14847.
TurkeyFreedom of AssociationThe first instance of the right of freedom of association was the second Turkish Constitution(1924 Türk Anayasası), in Section V which detailed multiple rights including the Freedom of Assembly. Earl, Edward Meade. "The New Constitution of Turkey." Political Science Quarterly 40, no. 1 (March 1925): 96-97.
TurkmenistanFreedom of AssociationTurkmenistan after independence from the Soviet Union had multiple constitutions; the earliest instance of the right of freedom of association is the 1992 Constitution which states in article 28 'Citizens have the right to form political parties and other social associations which operate within the framework of the Constitution and laws'. There are 3 constitutions which existed as the Turkmen SSR. Turkmenistan. 1992. “Constitution of Turkmenistan.” Web.archive.org. 1992. https://web.archive.org/web/20150414030847/http://www.uta.edu/cpsees/TURKCON.htm.
TuvaluFreedom of AssociationThe kingdom of Tuvalu’s constitution first asserts the freedom of association and assembly as part of section 11 of the 1982 constitution revised in 2008, and is developed in more detail in section 25 which describes the provisions and purposes of the freedom. Tuvalu is a part of the Commonwealth. Parliament of Tuvalu. 1986. THE CONSTITUTION of TUVALU. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/3899/95791/F656430737/TUV3899.pdf. (Orig. pub. 2008.).
UgandaFreedom of AssociationAccording to the constitution of the Republic of Uganda article 29 the first instance of the Rights and protections such as the freedom of association which include: “Protection of freedom of conscience, expression, movement, religion, assembly and association.” The Right is then defined in section e; which details the freedom to form and join associations or unions, including trade unions and political and other civic organisations. Republic of Uganda. 1995. Constitution of the Republic of Uganda. Www.parliament.go.ug. https://www.parliament.go.ug/documents/1240/constitution. (Orig. pub. 2018.).
UkraineFreedom of AssociationThe first instance of Ukraine allowing the freedom of association is the Ukraine SSR’s 1937 Constitution which entails the (в) свобода зборів і мітингів,г) свобода вуличних походів і демонстрацій.) which translates to the freedom of c) freedom of assembly and rallies, d) freedom of street marches and demonstrations, which can be equivalent to the freedom of association. Extraordinary XIV Ukrainian Congress of Soviets. 1937. “Constitution (Basic Law) of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic .” Wikisource. 1937.
United Arab EmiratesFreedom of AssociationThe United Arab Emirates constitution ‘dastūr’ of 1971 temporarily developed after the unification of the 6 Emirates details in article 33 that the Freedom of assembly and association are guaranteed within the limits of the law. Ras al Khaimah joined the Union in 1972 becoming the 7th Emirate. rulers of the emirates of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm Al Quwain and Fujairah. 1971. The constitution was ratified permanently in 1996 “The Constitution of the United Arab Emirates of 1971.” Official Gazette. December 2, 1971 https://www.raalc.ae/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/The-Constitution-of-the-United-Arab-Emirates-of-1971-English-1.pdf.
United KingdomFreedom of AssociationThe 1990 Human Rights Act protects the Right to assemble and associate, subject to reasonable and proportionate restrictions. The HRA primarily serves to codify the European Convention on Human Rights into British Law (the ECHR and its associated court are not related to the EU, and the UK is still a signatory).

In 1776, Richard Price, a British writer who supported the American revolution published Observations on the Nature of Civil Liberty, the Principles of Government, and the Justice and Policy of the War with America. Unlike other commentaries on civil rights, he includes discussion on free assembly. He describes a prohibition on “associating for any purposes, except when leave should be given us by a Lord Lieutenant or Viceroy” as being part of a “state of oppression which no country can endure.” Though he does not phrase it as a fundamental right, the fact that Price deems draconian restrictions on association oppressive implies a belief in at least a limited freedom of association. This is the first instance I could find of a political theorist invoking the concept of freedom of association (or the lack thereof).

There is a more explicit case for free association in John Stuart Mill’s On Liberty (1859). Mill lays a broad notion of individual liberty. He then argues that “from this liberty of each individual, follows the liberty, within the same limits, of combination among individuals; freedom to unite, for any purpose not involving harm to others: the persons combining being supposed to be of full age, and not forced or deceived (16).” Before any British thinkers espoused freedom of association as a right, John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, and David Hume addressed the issue (as Boyd helpfully summarizes). Hobbes detested associations, referring to them as “lesser commonwealths in the bowels of a greater, like worms in the entrails of a natural man” (257).

Locke disagreed with Hobbes’ cynical perspective on groups. John Locke’s “A Letter Concerning Toleration” primarily concerns religious associations, but he extends certain arguments to associations in general. The italicized text below is Boyd’s summarization (241), where sections in quotes come directly from “A Letter.” As Boyd notes, though Locke defends policies that allow freer association, he does so because of their practical benefits, not because it is a fundamental right (2008, 241).

“Suppose this Business of Religion were let alone,” Locke hypothesizes, “and that there were some other Distinction made between men and men, upon account of their different Complexions, Shapes, and Features.” Under conditions of differential treatment, such persons, “united together by one common persecution,” would become just as dangerous and disruptive.26 Conversely, if the state eliminated special privileges, on the one hand, or disproportionate burdens, on the other, then supposedly intractable religious or ethnic affiliations would become matters of complete indifference, no more or less contentious than other private decisions about how to spend one’s money, manage one’s estates, or marry off one’s daughter. Finally, David Hume’s “Of Parties in General” (1742) is another important piece of Enlightenment work skeptical of associations. His position is more nuanced that Hobbes; he understands that association may exist for different purposes. Factions “of interest” are deemed less dangerous than factions “of principle.” Regarding factions of principle, he wonders the following: “But where the difference of principle is attended with no contrariety of action, but every one may follow his own way, without interfering with his neighbour, as happens in all religious controversies; what madness, what fury can beget such unhappy and such fatal divisions?”

References:

Boyd, Richard. “THE MADISONIAN PARADOX OF FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION.” Social philosophy & policy 25, no. 2 (2008): 235–262.

Locke, John. “Letter Concerning Toleration”

Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty

Price, Richard. Observations on the Nature of Civil Liberty. London: Edward and Charles Dilly and Thomas Cadell, 1776.

While there are multiple instance of implied rights of association and petition such as the Magna Carta and the Petition of Right in 1628, the first explicit right to association is Trade Union Act, 1871 which granted the right to form and join trade unions for the purpose of protecting their interests and improving working conditions.

Trade Union Act, 1871. 1871. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/98373/117044/F1671923749/IRL98373.pdf.
United StatesFreedom of AssociationListed at the bottom of this section is language from the State Constitutions of New Hampshire and North Carolina and the Pennsylvania Declaration of Rights, all from 1776, which articulate the right to assemble (assembly and association are not always interchangeable, but many constitutions group them together). These documents all contain rights to assemble written in remarkably similar language, and they describe the right as politically driven. These were the oldest references to something like the right of association in governing documents.

Despite modern views of assembly as related to association, at the time of America’s founding, it would have been better understood as related to the right to petition. According to Congress’s online annotated Constitution, the assembly clause meant that the people have a right to assemble in order to petition the government. The site says that assembly was initially seen as a “subordinate and instrumental” right ("Freedom of Assembly and Petition"). The aforementioned state constitutions should be interpreted the same way. In fact, this is even more clear in these state constitutions than in the national one. The state constitutions surround the right to assemble with expressly political language, such as the right to petition and advocacy for the “common good,” while the First Amendment’s guarantees are political, but not entirely political (it protects religion, and protected speech and press are often, but not always, political).

As Richard Boyd argues in “The Madisonian Paradox of Free Association,” America’s founders did not explicitly include free association because at least some of them were skeptical of it, worrying that certain associations would be conspiratorial or seditious. He summarizes the British Enlightenment tradition skeptical of associations, which influenced the founders (I describe this in the last few paragraphs of the UK section, on Hobbes, Locke, and Hume). James Madison, the primary author of the Bill of Rights, feared the influence of factions, which private associations furthered. As Boyd notes, Madison viewed association as a “second-order” right (page 258), whose existence is tolerable because institutions can mitigate its worst effects (page 247). The following passage from “Federalist No. 10” illustrates his attitude toward factions arising from free association:

It could never be more truly said than of the first remedy, that it was worse than the disease. Liberty is to faction what air is to fire, an aliment without which it instantly expires. But it could not be less folly to abolish liberty, which is essential to political life, because it nourishes faction, than it would be to wish the annihilation of air, which is essential to animal life, because it imparts to fire its destructive agency.

As Boyd notes, there are several possible reasons why Madison may not have enumerated the right to associate. It is possible that he saw it as implied by other First-Amendment rights, such as free assembly. It also may have been seen as less important or vulnerable than other rights, and Madison may have seen it as the type of auxiliary right protected by the Ninth Amendment. Finally, the right’s exclusion may have been because the founders were too skeptical of it for its inclusion (258).

Since the 1950s and 60s, SCOTUS has, to an extent, ruled that the speech and assembly rights imply a right to associate, especially for politically expressive purposes. For example, it ruled in NAACP v. Alabama that the NAACP cannot be forced to submit a membership roster to a state government. In 2000, in Boy Scouts v. Dale, the court held that the Boy Scouts could exclude gay members (in violation of state non-dsicrimination laws) because not being able to do so would undermine their ability to express a viewpoint - expressive association.

In Roberts v. US Jaycees, an organization for young business leaders’ ban on female members was challenged because it violated state non-discrimination law. This case is notable because the court identified a new form of association: intimate association. The opinion of the court states that “certain intimate human relationships be secured against undue intrusion by the State because of the role of such relationships in safeguarding the individual freedom that is central to our constitutional scheme.” The opinion places this right under the general aims of the First Amendment. The court ruled against the organization, but in so doing, it established the idea that Americans have the right to free intimate and expressive association. Still, one could argue that in a state with true freedom to associate, any group of people would be able to enact whatever membership restrictions it wanted, regardless of whether or not it falls into the categories of “expressive” or “intimate.”

Although assembly is the First-Amendment freedom that most seems to correspond with association, SCOTUS has not derived free association this way. Rather, it uses a more nebulous combination of various First-Amendment rights. As the majority held in NAACP v. Button, “It is not necessary to subsume such activity under a narrow, literal conception of freedom of speech, petition or assembly, for there is no longer any doubt that the First and Fourteenth Amendments protect certain forms of orderly group activity.”

Article XVIII of North Carolina’s Constitution: “That the people have a right to assemble together, to consult for their common good, to instruct their Representatives, and to apply to the Legislature, for redress of grievances.” Section 21 of New Hampshire’s Constitution: “The citizens have a right in a peaceable manner to assemble for their common good, and to apply to those invested with the powers of government, for redress of grievances, or for other purposes, by petition, address, or remonstrance. No law abridging the freedom of speech shall be enacted.”

Section XVI of the Pennsylvania Declaration of Rights: “That the people have a right to assemble together, to consult for their common good, to instruct their representatives, and to apply to the legislature for redress of grievances, by address, petition, or remonstrance.

References:

Boyd, Richard. “THE MADISONIAN PARADOX OF FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION.” Social philosophy & policy 25, no. 2 (2008): 235–262.



The first instance in US constitutional law addressing the equivalent of the freedom of association is the inclusion of the right of freedom of assembly in the First Amendment to the United States constitution adopted in 1791. The amendment states: ‘That Congress make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting its free exercise. It protects freedom of speech, the press, assembly, and the right to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.’ The Supreme Court has asserted in cases such as NAACP v. Alabama (1958) that the amendment includes the right of freedom of association.

The White House. 2023. “The Constitution.” The White House. 2023. https://www.whitehouse.gov/about-the-white-house/our-government/the-constitution/#:~:text=The%20First%20Amendment%20provides%20that.
UruguayFreedom of AssociationThe first instance of Freedom of Association in Uruguayan constitution is the 1934 constitution which stated in article 38 according to the translation: “Article 38.- All persons have the right to associate, whatever the object they pursue, provided that they do not constitute an illegal association declared by Law. ”“Constituci�N de La Rep�Blica - 1934.” 1934. Web.archive.org. 1934. https://web.archive.org/web/20131216185532/http://www.parlamento.gub.uy/Constituciones/Const934.htm.
UzbekistanFreedom of AssociationThe first instance of the right of association is guaranteed in the 1992 Constitution of Uzbekistan. The 34th article roughly states that all citizens have the right to association and that no one may infringe on the rights, freedoms and dignity of the individuals. 08.12.1992. The Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan. 1992. Lex.uz. 1992. https://lex.uz/docs/4032775.
VanuatuFreedom of AssociationThe first instance of the freedom of association in the Vanuatuan Constitution is in the first edition after independence in 1980 asserts in Chapter 2 Part 1 in article 5 sub article h that all individuals are entitled to freedom of assembly and association without discrimination. REPUBLIC OF VANUATU. 1980. “CONSTITUTION of the REPUBLIC of VANUATU.” https://parliament.gov.vu/images/pdf/constitution.pdf.
VenezuelaFreedom of AssociationThere are multiple constitutions and iterations of the Venezuelan constitution and the first instance of freedom of association is the 1961 constitution which indicated in article 70 that everyone has the right to associate for lawful purposes, in accordance with the law. Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. 1961. “Constitución de Venezuela, 1961 Con Reformas de 1983.” Pdba.georgetown.edu. 1961. https://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Venezuela/ven1961.html.
VietnamFreedom of AssociationThe first instance of the freedom of association in Vietnam is the 1946 constitution of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, in Article 10 which states in translation; Vietnamese citizens have the right to: Freedom of organization and meeting, among other rights. Upon reunification of the North and South of Vietnam the 1992 Constitution indicated in article 69 that citizens are entitled to freedom of speech … assembly, association and demonstration in accordance with the law. “Hiến Pháp 1946 Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa.” 1946. Thuvienphapluat.vn. 1946. https://thuvienphapluat.vn/van-ban/Bo-may-hanh-chinh/Hien-phap-1946-Viet-Nam-Dan-Chu-Cong-Hoa-36134.aspx?v=d. Socialist Republic of Vietnam. 1992. “1992 CONSTITUTION of the SOCIALIST REPUBLIC of VIETNAM (as Amended 25 December 2001).” Http://Www.vietnamlaws.com/Freelaws/Constitution92%28aa01%29.Pdf/. 1992. https://web.archive.org/web/20081016121441/http://www.vietnamlaws.com/freelaws/Constitution92%28aa01%29.pdf/.
YemenFreedom of AssociationFirst instance of the right to association is the 39th Article in the 1991 constitution which stated: ‘Citizens all over the Republic may, in a manner that does not contravene the provisions of this constitution, associate politically, professionally, and in trade unions.‘ Further guaranteeing this right in the article stating the various types of associations permitted. LL.M., Prof. Dr. Axel Tschentscher,. 1991. “Yemen Constitution.” Www.servat.unibe.ch. ICL. May 16, 1991. http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/ym00000_.html.
ZambiaFreedom of AssociationZambia states in its constitution of 1991 that every person in Zambia has the right to: freedom of conscience, expression, assembly, movement and association according to article 11 as part of fundamental rights. President and Parliament of Zimbabwe. 1991. “Zambia 1991 (Rev. 2009) Constitution - Constitute.” Www.constituteproject.org. 1991. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Zambia_2009?lang=en.
ZimbabweFreedom of AssociationZimbabwe first highlights the right of association in section 21. Protection of freedom of assembly and association of the 1980 constitution after independence from the United Kingdom. Zimbabwe. 1980. “CONSTITUTION of ZIMBABWE.” AceProject. 1980. https://aceproject.org/ero-en/regions/africa/ZW/Constitution%20of%20Zimbabwe%201980.pdf.
AfghanistanFreedom of ExpressionArticle 31 of the 1964 Afghanistan Constitution states that “every Afghan shall have the right to express thoughts through speech, writing, illustrations as well as other means in accordance with provisions of this constitution” (University of Nebraska, “Constitution of Afghanistan,” 1964) .

In Afghanistan's 2004 constitution Article 34 explicitly protects the freedom of expression. With every Afghan having the right to “express through speech, writing, illustrations as well as other means in accordance with the provisions of the constitution.”

References:

1964 Afghanistan Constitution: https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1005&context=afghanenglish

2004 Afghanistan Constitution: https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Afghanistan_2004?%20lang=en
AlbaniaFreedom of ExpressionArticle 197 of the 1928 Fundamental Statute of the Kingdom of Albania guaranteed freedom of speech in peacetime under ordinary circumstance, but left room for exceptions in wartime or under extraordinary conditions. Freedom of speech was also asserted in Article 53 of the 1976 Constitution. Article 22 of the 1998 Albanian constitution guarantees the freedom of expression.

References:

1928 Fundamental Statute of the Kingdom of Albania: https://www.hoelseth.com/royalty/albania/albconst19281201.html

Albania Constitution (1976): https://data.globalcit.eu/NationalDB/docs/ALB%20The%20Constitution%20of%20the%20Peoples%20Socialist%20Republic%20of%20Albania%201976.pdf

Albania Constitution (1998): “Albania 1998 (Rev. 2016) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed September 14, 2022. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Albania_2016?lang=en.
AlgeriaFreedom of ExpressionArticle 19 of the 1963 Algerian Constitution states that “the Republic guarantees freedom of the press and of other means of information, freedom of association, freedom of speech and public intervention, and freedom of assembly”

Freedom of expression is currently guaranteed by the 52nd article of the 2020 Algeria constitution.

References:

“The Algerian Constitution.” The Middle East journal 17, no. 4 (1963): 446–450.

“Algeria 2020 Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed September 14, 2022. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Algeria_2020?lang=en.
AndorraFreedom of ExpressionThe Andorran constitution ensures freedom of expression and the freedom to share information in the 12th article of their constitution. This right was codified in 1993 and includes a prohibition on public censorship. “Andorra 1993 Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed September 14, 2022. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Andorra_1993?lang=en.
AngolaFreedom of ExpressionArticle 22 of the 1975 Angolan Constitution states: "Within the framework of the realization of the basic objectives of the People's Republic of Angola, the law will ensure freedom of expression, assembly, and association."

Freedom of expression is asserted in the 1992 Angola constitution, part II, article 32: "Freedom of expression, assembly, demonstration and all other forms of expression shall be guaranteed." Under chapter two, article 31-32 of the 2010 Angolan Constitution, freedom of expression is guaranteed along with other civil rights and freedoms considered fundamental.

References:

1975 Angola Constitution: “The Constitution of the People’s Republic of Angola.” World Constitutions Illustrated, Heinonline. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/rsl2&i=197

1992 Angola Constitution: https://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/Angola%20Constitution.pdf

2010 Angola Constitution: Constitute. Accessed September 14, 2022. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Angola_2010?lang=en.
Antigua and BarbudaFreedom of ExpressionIn Antigua and Barbuda the 1981 constitutions second chapter offers a broad variety of protections. They range from the freedom of expression to the protection from discrimination on the grounds of race.

References:

“Republic of Antigua and Barbuda / República Del Antigua y Barbuda Constitution of 1981 Constituciones De 1981.” Antigua and Barbuda: Constitution, 1981: https://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Antigua/antigua-barbuda.html.
ArgentinaFreedom of ExpressionIn Argentina the 1853 constitution laid the groundwork for freedom of expression. "Freedom of speech, although not expressly granted by the Argentine Constitution as it is in the Constitution of the United States, is nevertheless impliedly recognized in Article 14, which guarantees freedom of the press and which provides that all inhabitants of the nation have the right to publish their ideas through the press without previous censorship; and in Article 33, which provides that the declarations, rights, and guarantees enumerated in the Constitution shall not be considered a denial of other rights and guarantees not enumerated but which arise from the principle of the sovereignty of the people and of the republican form of government." (Amadeo, 186-187)

References:

Amadeo, Santos P.. Argentine Constitutional Law: The Judicial Function in the Maintenance of the Federal System and the Preservation of Individual Rights. New York Chichester, West Sussex: Columbia University Press, 1943. https://doi-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/10.7312/amad90398
ArmeniaFreedom of ExpressionThe 1990 Declaration of Independence of Armenia guaranteed freedom of speech. Article 24 of the 1995 Constitution of Armenia also guaranteed freedom of speech, using language that suggests modes of expression analogous to speech: "Everyone is entitled to assert his or her opinion. No one shall be forced to retract or change his or her opinion. Everyone is entitled to freedom of speech, including the freedom to seek, receive and disseminate information and ideas through any medium of information, regardless of state borders." This constitution was amended in 2005, and Article 27 of the version amended amended in 2005 specifies a guarantee of freedom of expression: "Everyone shall have the right to freely express his/her opinion. No one shall be forced to recede or change his/her opinion. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression including freedom to search for, receive and impart information and ideas by any means of information regardless of the state frontiers."

References:

Armenian Declaration of Independence: https://www.gov.am/en/independence/

"Constitution of the Republic of Armenia" (1995): http://www.parliament.am/legislation.php?sel=show&ID=2425&lang=eng

"Constitution of the Republic of Armenia (with the Amendments of 27 November 2005)": http://www.parliament.am/legislation.php?sel=show&ID=1&lang=eng
AustraliaFreedom of ExpressionAccording to the Australian Human Rights Commission: "The Australian Constitution does not explicitly protect freedom of expression. However, the High Court has held that an implied freedom of political communication exists as an indispensable part of the system of representative and responsible government created by the Constitution. It operates as a freedom from government restraint, rather than a right conferred directly on individuals." Furthermore, the Australian Human Rights Commission sees freedom of expression as extant in common law, and described a presumption in favor of preservation of such rights, absent explicit claims by Parliament to the contrary: "A well-established principle of statutory interpretation in Australian courts is that Parliament is presumed not to have intended to limit fundamental rights, unless it indicates this intention in clear terms. This includes freedom of expression."

References:

“Freedom of Information, Opinion and Expression.” The Australian Human Rights Commission. Accessed September 14, 2022. https://humanrights.gov.au/our-work/rights-and-freedoms/freedom-information-opinion-and-expression.
AustriaFreedom of ExpressionArticle 13 of Austria’s 1867 “Basic Law on the General Rights of Nationals in the Kingdoms and Länder represented in the Council of the Realm” states that “Everyone has the right within the limits of the law freely to express his opinion by word of mouth and in writing, print, or pictorial representation. The Press may be neither subjected to censorship nor restricted by the licensing System. Administrative postal distribution vetoes do not apply to inland publication” (Basic Law of 21 December 1867) .

References:

1867 Basic Law: https://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/au03000_.html
AzerbaijanFreedom of ExpressionIn Azerbaijan’s 1995 constitution freedom of expression is protected via the 47th article on Freedom of Thought and Speech. It is accompanied by articles defending freedom of conscience, assembly, information and creative work.

References:

https://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/Azerbaijan%20Constitution.pdf

Blaustein, Albert P., and Gisbert H. Flanz. Constitutions of the Countries of the World; a Series of Updated Texts, Constitutional Chronologies and Annotated Bibliographies. "Azerbaijan Republic, Booklet 2, 1996" Permanent ed. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y: Oceana Publications, 1971.
BahrainFreedom of ExpressionAccording to article 23 of the 1973 Constitution of Bahrain, "Freedom of speech and freedom to carry out scientific research shall be guaranteed. Every person shall have the right to express and propagate his opinion in words or in writing or by any other means, in accordance with the conditions and procedures specified by the law."

The Constitution of Bahrain was put in place in 2002 with amendments through 2017. In Chapter Three, article 23 of the 2002 Constitution, It describes freedom of expression in the following way: "Freedom of opinion and scientific research is guaranteed. Everyone has the right to express his opinion and publish it by word of mouth, in writing or otherwise under the rules and conditions laid down by law, provided that the fundamental beliefs of Islamic doctrine are not infringed, the unity of the people is not prejudiced, and discord or sectarianism is not aroused."

References:

https://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/ba01000_.html

“Bahrain 2002 (Rev. 2017) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed September 14, 2022. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Bahrain_2017?lang=en.
BangladeshFreedom of ExpressionArticle 39 of the 1972 Bangladesh Constitution states that “(1) Freedom or thought and conscience is guaranteed. (2) Subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interests of the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign states, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence-(a) the right of every citizen of freedom of speech and expression; and freedom of the press, are guaranteed."

References:

http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/research/bangladesh-constitution.pdf
BarbadosFreedom of ExpressionArticle 20 of the 1966 Barbados Constitution states: "20. 1. Except with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of expression, and for the purposes of this section the said freedom includes the freedom to hold opinions without interference, freedom to receive ideas and information without interference, freedom to communicate ideas and information without interferences and freedom from interference with his correspondence or other means of communication. 2. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision -

a. that is reasonably required in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health; or b. that is reasonably required for the purpose of protecting the reputations, rights and freedoms of other persons or the private lives of persons concerned in legal proceedings, preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence, maintaining the authority and independence of the courts or regulating the administration or technical operation of telephony, telegraphy, posts, wireless broadcasting, television or other means of communication or regulating public exhibitions or public entertainments; or c. that imposes restrictions upon public officers or members of a disciplined force."

References:

https://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Barbados/barbados66.html
BelarusFreedom of ExpressionThe Constitution of Belarus originally adopted in 1994 including Section II outlines the protected freedom of expression in Article 33.

References:

https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzby0006&id=4&men_tab=srchresults

https://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/Belarus%20Constitution.pdf

https://www.venice.coe.int/webforms/documents/?pdf=CDL(2003)065-e
BelgiumFreedom of ExpressionIn Belgium freedom of expression is guaranteed by the articles of their 1831 constitution, except in situations where crimes are committed while in use of said freedoms which is still illegal (i.e. vandalism during a protest). “Belgium 1831 (Rev. 2014) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed September 14, 2022. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Belgium_2014?lang=en.
BelizeFreedom of ExpressionArticle 12 of the 1981 Constitution of Belize states, "Except with his own consent, a person shall not be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of expression, including freedom to hold opinions without interference, freedom to receive ideas and information without interference, freedom to communicate ideas and information without interference (whether the communication be to the public generally or to any person or class of persons) and freedom from interference with his correspondence." However, the Constitution also articulates certain conditions under which exceptions to this might be necessary, including what might be necessary in the "interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health; ... for the purpose of protecting the reputations, rights and freedoms of other persons or the private lives of persons concerned in legal proceedings, preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence, maintaining the authority and independence of the courts or regulating the administration or the technical operation of telephone, telegraphy, posts, wireless broadcasting, television or other means of communication, public exhibitions or public entertainments; or that imposes restrictions on officers in the public service that are required for the proper performance of their functions." https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Belize_2011
BeninFreedom of ExpressionBenin’s 1990 Constitution protects group as well as individual freedom of expression in article 23. However, these expressions of belief must “take place with respect for the secularity of the state.”(Article 23). “Benin 1990 Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed September 14, 2022. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Benin_1990?lang=en.
BhutanFreedom of ExpressionIn The Kingdom of Bhutan all Bhutanese citizens are granted the right to free speech and expression under article 7 of the 2008 constitution. This does however only apply to those citizens of Bhutan.

References:

Bhutan 2008 Constitution: https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Bhutan_2008
BoliviaFreedom of ExpressionIn the state of Bolivia Freedom of expression is guaranteed by the 106th article of the seventh chapter of their 2009 constitution. Being listed right after the right of every citizen to play sports. “Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 2009 Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed September 14, 2022. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Bolivia_2009?lang=en.
Bosnia and HerzegovinaFreedom of ExpressionBosnia and Herzegovina’s constitution adopted in 1995 lists freedom of expression as one of the thirteen rights afforded to any person that enters the territory. It is listed among rights like the right to life, right to marry and the right not to be subject to slavery. “Bosnia and Herzegovina 1995 (Rev. 2009) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed September 14, 2022. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Bosnia_Herzegovina_2009?lang=en.
BotswanaFreedom of ExpressionIn the Constitution of Botswana originally enacted in 1966 following their independence from Britain freedom of expression is listed as a fundamental right in chapter two. Behind only the right to life, liberty and security. “Botswana 1966 (Rev. 2016) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed September 14, 2022. https://constituteproject.org/constitution/Botswana_2016?lang=en.
BrazilFreedom of ExpressionThe Brazilian constitution included the fundamental freedom of expression in the seventh constitution of Brazil in 1988. While later amendments would change the constitution the freedom of expression has remained constant. “Federal Supreme Court Constitution - Stf.jus.br.” Accessed September 14, 2022. https://www.stf.jus.br/arquivo/cms/legislacaoConstituicao/anexo/brazil_federal_constitution.pdf.
BruneiFreedom of ExpressionAccording to the U.S. Department of State, as of 2022 in Brunei: "Under the law and emergency powers, the government restricted freedom of expression, including for media." https://www.state.gov/reports/2022-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/brunei/
BulgariaFreedom of ExpressionBulgaria’s constitution adopted in 1991 provides explicit protection of freedom of expression. The constitution has done so since its original adoption. “Bulgaria 1991 (Rev. 2015) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed September 14, 2022. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Bulgaria_2015?lang=en.
Burkina FasoFreedom of ExpressionBurkina Faso’s constitution originally began protecting freedom of expression when it was adopted in 1991 in the forms of opinions, press and the right to free information in article 8 of the original constitution. “Burkina Faso 1991 (Rev. 2015) Constitution.” Constitute. Last modified 2015. Accessed September 16, 2022. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Burkina_Faso_2015?lang=en.
BurundiFreedom of ExpressionArticle 31 of the 2005 Burundi Constitution states: "The liberty of expression is guaranteed. The State respects the liberty of religion, thought, consciousness and opinion."

Burundi's current constitution was put in place in May of 2018. The new constitution guarantees freedom of expression in article 31.

"Burundi 2005 Constitution": https://constituteproject.org/constitution/Burundi_2005

“Burundi 2018 Constitution.” Constitute. Last modified 2018. Accessed September 16, 2022. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Burundi_2018?lang=en.
CambodiaFreedom of ExpressionAccording to Article 9 of the 1947 Constitution: "Every Cambodian is free to speak, write, print, publish. He may, either by way of the press or any other means express, spread, defend every opinion so long as he makes no unauthorized use of that right or does not tend to disturb the public order."

In the Kingdom of Cambodia freedom of expression is currently protected by the 41st article of the 1993 constitution. The nation is a kingdom the however, king reigns but does not govern and the citizens are afforded a plethora of protected rights.

“Cambodia 1993 (Rev. 2008) Constitution.” Constitute. Last modified 2008. Accessed September 19, 2022. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Cambodia_2008?lang=en.

https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.cow/zzkh0002&collection=cow
CameroonFreedom of ExpressionThe 1961 Cameroon Constitution offered a general guarantee of those rights in the UDHR (of which one is freedom of expression): "The Federal Republic of Cameroon is democratic, secular and social. It shall ensure the equality of all citizens before the law. It affirms its adherence to the fundamental freedoms set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Charter of the United Nations." However, the 1961 Constitution did not discuss the right to freedom of expression specifically.

Freedom of expression is specifically guaranteed in the 1972 Cameroon Constitution: "the freedom of communication, of expression, of the press, of assembly, of association, and of trade unionism, as well as the right to strike shall be guaranteed under the conditions fixed by law"

https://condor.depaul.edu/mdelance/images/Pdfs/Federal%20Constitution%20of%20Cameroon.pdf

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Cameroon_2008?lang=en
CanadaFreedom of ExpressionIn Canada the "Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms" of 1982 a part of the Canadian constitution that set in stone the fundamental rights and freedoms afforded to all Canadians. It is proceeded by the Constitution of Canada adopted in 1867, but the constitution makes no such explicit protection for the freedom of expression. Heritage, Canadian. “Government of Canada.” Canada.ca. / Gouvernement du Canada, March 24, 2022. Last modified March 24, 2022. Accessed September 20, 2022. https://www.canada.ca/en/canadian-heritage/services/how-rights-protected/guide-canadian-charter-rights-freedoms.html.
Cape VerdeFreedom of ExpressionIn Cape Verde Freedom of expression is protected by the 1980 constitution through Title 2, Article 27. The constitution further protects freedom of expression in articles 45 and 46. “Cape Verde 1980 (Rev. 1992) Constitution.” Constitute. Last modified 1992. Accessed September 20, 2022. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Cape_Verde_1992?lang=en.
Central African RepublicFreedom of ExpressionArticle 13 of the 1994 Constitution reads: "The freedom to inform, to express and diffuse opinions by speech, the pen and image, under reservation of respect of the rights of others, is guaranteed."

This right is also found can be found in the 2016 Constitution: "The freedom to inform, to express and to disseminate one's opinions by speech, the pen and the image and any other means of communication under reserve of respect for the rights of others, is guaranteed individually and collectively."

https://g7plus.fd.uc.pt/pdfs/CentralAfricanRepublic.pdf

“Central African Republic 2016 Constitution.” Constitute. Last modified 2016. Accessed September 20, 2022. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Central_African_Republic_2016?lang=en.
ChadFreedom of ExpressionChad's 2005 revisions to the constitution were the first to offer freedom of expression in articles 28. However, the same article states "The law determines the conditions of their exercise." Which has allowed the government to suspend this constitutionally protected freedom. “Chad 2018 Constitution.” Constitute. Last modified 2018. Accessed September 20, 2022. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Chad_2018?lang=en.
ChileFreedom of ExpressionIn Chile the 1980 constitution protects freedom of expression through article 12. This article includes with it free press, the independence of education from state control and a ban government on media monopolies. “Chile 1980 (Rev. 2021) Constitution.” Constitute. Last modified 2021. Accessed September 20, 2022. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Chile_2021?lang=en.
ChinaFreedom of ExpressionThe Constitution of the People’s Republic of China of 1982 explicitly protects the freedom of expression. “People's Republic of China.” Constitution of the People's Republic of China. Accessed September 20, 2022. http://www.npc.gov.cn/englishnpc/constitution2019/201911/1f65146fb6104dd3a2793875d19b5b29.shtml.
ColombiaFreedom of ExpressionIn Colombia freedom of expression is constitutionally protected by articles 46 and 47 of the constitution originally adopted in 1995. “Conoce Nuestro Micrositio.” Contador De Visitas Gratis. Last modified 2021. Accessed September 20, 2022. https://www.corteconstitucional.gov.co/.
ComorosFreedom of ExpressionIn Comoros freedom of expression, thought, assembly and cultural creation are all protected by article 21 of the nation’s constitution adopted in 2018. “Comoros 2018 Constitution.” Constitute. Last modified 2018. Accessed September 20, 2022. https://constituteproject.org/constitution/Comoros_2018?lang=en.
Costa RicaFreedom of ExpressionThe Costa Rican constitution officially guaranteed freedom of expression (that does not harm third parties or infringe on the law) in article 28 of the 1949 constitution. “Costa Rica 1949 (Rev. 2011) Constitution.” Constitute Project. Last modified 2011. Accessed September 20, 2022. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Costa_Rica_2011?lang=en.
CroatiaFreedom of ExpressionCroatia guarantees freedom of expression in article 38 of the 1991 constitution. “Croatia 1991 (Rev. 2013) Constitution.” Constitute. Last modified 2013. Accessed September 28, 2022. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Croatia_2013?lang=en.
CubaFreedom of ExpressionWhile the 1976 constitution protected freedom of expression that promoted the socialist society of Cuba, the 2019 constitution fully guarantees freedom of expression. “Cuba 2019 Constitution.” Constitute. Last modified 2019. Accessed September, 2022. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Cuba_2019?lang=en.
CyprusFreedom of ExpressionCyprus protected freedom of expression with article 19 of their 1960 constitution. “Cyprus 1960 (Rev. 2013) Constitution.” 2013. Constitute. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Cyprus_2013?lang=en.
Czech RepublicFreedom of ExpressionThe current constitution of 1992 superseded the 1960 constitution upon its adoption by the Czech national council. Both constitutions however, protected freedom of expression. “Czech Republic 1993 (Rev. 2013) Constitution.” 2013. Constitute. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Czech_Republic_2013?lang=en.
Democratic Republic of the CongoFreedom of ExpressionIn The Democratic Republic of the Congo expression in the form of speech, print, thought and pictures with respect to the law is protected by article 21 of the 2005 constitution. “Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 2005 (Rev. 2011) Constitution.” Constitute. Last modified 2011. Accessed September 20, 2022. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo_2011?lang=en.
DenmarkFreedom of ExpressionDenmark has protected freedom of expression since their 1953 constitution was adopted. “Denmark's Constitution of 1953 - Constituteproject.org.” 2022. Accessed September 28. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Denmark_1953.pdf?lang=en&lang=en.
DjiboutiFreedom of ExpressionDjibouti guaranteed freedom of expression in the 15th article of their 1992 constitution. “Djibouti 1992 (Rev. 2010) Constitution.” 2010. Constitute. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Djibouti_2010?lang=en.
DominicaFreedom of ExpressionFreedom of expression was first guaranteed by the revised laws of Dominica in 1990
Dominican RepublicFreedom of ExpressionThe Dominican Republic's first constitution of 1844 protected freedom of expression.
East TimorFreedom of ExpressionFreedom of expression was first protected by the 2002 constitution
EcuadorFreedom of ExpressionThe country established Freedom of expression in 1861 constitution.
EgyptFreedom of ExpressionAccording to Article 14 of Royal Decree No.42 (1923): “Freedom of opinion shall be ensured. Every person may express their thoughts in saying, writing, depiction, or otherwise in consistency with the law.” https://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/1923_-_egyptian_constitution_english_1.pdf
El SalvadorFreedom of ExpressionThe 1962 constitution of El Salvador was the first to bring freedom of expression.
Equatorial GuineaFreedom of ExpressionThe 1991 Constitution codified freedom of expression in Equatorial Guinea.
EritreaFreedom of ExpressionThe 1997 constitution of Eritrea brought with it freedom of expression.
EstoniaFreedom of ExpressionThe 1953 European convention on Human rights protects freedom of expression along with articles 44-46 of the country's original 1938 constitution https://www.eesti.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/human-rights/freedom-of-speech-and-religion
EswatiniFreedom of ExpressionSection 24 of the Eswatini constitution of 2005 protects freedom of expression.
EthiopiaFreedom of ExpressionThe first modern constitution of the Ethiopian Empire brought with it freedom of expression in 1931.
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FijiFreedom of ExpressionThe 1970 constitution of Fiji Was the first to guarantee the freedom of expression.
FinlandFreedom of ExpressionThe 1919 constitution of Finland was the first to protect freedom of expression.
FranceFreedom of ExpressionDeclaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen ( 1789)
GabonFreedom of ExpressionGabon's 1991 constitution protects Freedom of expression in the very first article.
GeorgiaFreedom of ExpressionThe Constitution of the democratic republic of Georgia of 1921 protect freedom of expression, and the redrafted version of this constitution is still in place today.
GermanyFreedom of ExpressionArticle 4of the "Law Concerning the Basic Rights of the German People," from 27 December 1848, asserted freedom of expression.

Article 118 of the 11 August 1919 Constitution of the German Reich (The Weimar Constitution) guaranteed freedom of expression.

References:

"IV. Fundamental Rights of the German People voted in by the National Assembly in Frankfurt.," IV. Droits Fondementaux du Peuple Allemand votes par l'Assemblee Nationale de Francfort. (1848): 210-211: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.cow/zzde0172&id=1&collection=cow&index=

The Constitution of the German Reich / August 11, 1919 / Translation of Document 2050-PS / Office of U.S. Chief of Counsel. Courtesy of Cornell University Law Library, Donovan Nuremberg Trials Collection.

https://digital.library.cornell.edu/catalog/nur01840
GhanaFreedom of Expression1992 Constitution of Ghana protects freedom of expression.
GreeceFreedom of ExpressionThe 1864 reforming of the 1844 constitution brought freedom of expression to Greece. https://www.britannica.com/place/Greece/Reform-expansion-and-defeat
GrenadaFreedom of ExpressionThe 1973 constitution explicitly established freedom of expression. https://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Grenada/gren73eng.html#mozTocId391068
GuatemalaFreedom of ExpressionThe first Guatemalan Constitution of 1825 made cursory protections of freedom of expression. These were not specified until the 1985 constitution that is still in use today.
GuineaFreedom of ExpressionGuinea's 2010 Constitution protects freedom of expression.
Guinea-BissauFreedom of ExpressionThe first constitution of Guinea Bissau codified in May 1984 protects freedom of expression.
GuyanaFreedom of ExpressionArticle 146of the 1980 constitution of Guyana brought with it protected freedom of expression. “Guyana 1980 (Rev. 2016) Constitution.” 2022. Constitute. Accessed October 30. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Guyana_2016?lang=en.
HaitiFreedom of ExpressionHaiti began explicitly protecting freedom of expression in 1987 with the 1987 constitution. “Haiti 1987 (Rev. 2012) Constitution.” 2022. Constitute. Accessed October 30. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Haiti_2012?lang=en.
HondurasFreedom of ExpressionIn Honduras the American Convention on Human Rights signed in 1969 was the first to protect freedom of expression. “Basic Documents - American Declaration - Cidh.oas.org.” 2022. Accessed October 31. https://www.cidh.oas.org/Basicos/English/Basic2.American%20Declaration.htm.
HungaryFreedom of ExpressionIn Hungary the 1989 amendments to the constitution brought freedom of expression. “Constitutional History of Hungary.” 2000. ConstitutionNet. June 25. https://constitutionnet.org/country/hungary.
IcelandFreedom of ExpressionArticle 2 of the 1944 Icelandic Constitution was the first to protect freedom of expression “Constitution of The Republic of Iceland.” 2018. Government.is. January 19. https://www.government.is/publications/legislation/lex/2018/01/19/Constitution-of-the-Republic-of-Iceland-No.-33-17-June-1944-as-amended-30-May-1984-31-May-1991-28-June-1995-and-24-June-1999/.
IndiaFreedom of ExpressionThe Constitution of India Bill (also referred to as the Swaraj Bill) codified in 1895 was the first to protect freedom of expression. “Constitution of India.” 2015. CAD. June. https://www.constitutionofindia.net/historical_constitutions/the_constitution_of_india_bill__unknown__1895__1st%20January%201895#:~:text=The%20Constitution%20of%20India%20Bill%201895%2C%20also%20referred%20to%20as,albeit%20within%20the%20British%20Empire.
IndonesiaFreedom of ExpressionIn Indonesia the 1945 Constitution was the first to protect freedom of expression “Indonesia 1945 (Reinst. 1959, Rev. 2002) Constitution.” 2022. Constitute. Accessed October 30. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Indonesia_2002?lang=en.
IranFreedom of ExpressionArticle 18 of the Supplementary Constitutional Law of 7 October 1907 reads: "The acquisition and study of arts, letters and sciences is free, except in so far as they are forbidden by the Sheri." Article 20 of the same document states: "All publications, except heretical works containing matter harmful to the religion of Islam, are free, and are exempt from

censureship. Whenever anything contrary to the law of the press is found in them, the publisher or author will be punished in accordance with that law. If the author is well known and resident in Persia, the publisher, printer and distributor shall be secured from any action being brought against them."

References:

Wright, Herbert F. Constitutions of the States at War 1914-1918 . Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off.: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/stwar0001&id=499&men_tab=srchresults#
IraqFreedom of ExpressionArticle 12 of Iraq’s 1925 Constitution protected freedom of expression: “Freedom of expression of opinion, liberty of publication, of meeting together, and of forming and joining associations is guaranteed to all Iraqis within such limits as may be prescribed by law”.

Article 38 of the 2005 Iraq Constitution states that "The State shall guarantee in a way that does not violate public order and morality ... [f]reedom of expression using all means"

References:

Iraq 1925 Constitution: https://constitution.org/1-Constitution/cons/iraq/iraqiconst19250321.html

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Iraq_2005
IsraelFreedom of ExpressionFreedom of expression is loosely defined by the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel and rulings by the Israel Supreme Court, although never explicitly protected.
ItalyFreedom of ExpressionConstitution of 1948 Was the first to protect freedom of expression. “Italy 1948 (Rev. 2012) Constitution.” 2020. Constitute. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Italy_2012?lang=en.
Ivory CoastFreedom of ExpressionAccording to the Preamble of the 1960 Constitution of the Republic of Cote d'Ivoire, "The People of Cote d'Ivoire proclaim their adherence to the principles of Democracy and of the Rights of Man, as they have been defined by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789, by the Universal Declaration of 1948, and as they are guaranteed by this Constitution." Articles 9 & 10 of the 2000 Constitution of the Republic of Cote d'Ivoire was more definitive. Article 9 held that: "The freedom of thought and of expression, notably the freedom of conscience, of religious or philosophical opinion are guaranteed to all, under reserve of respect of the law, of the rights of others, of the national security and of the public order." Article 10 was both explicit about freedom of expression: "Each has the right to express and to freely disseminate their ideas. All propaganda having for [its] object or for [its] effect to make one social group prevail over another, or to encourage racial or religious hatred is prohibited." This last prohibition on propaganda intended to divide groups with the society was very similar to a like prohibition in the 1960 Constitution.

References:

English translation of the French original text of the Constitution of 1960 Title I: Of the State and of Sovereignty," Constitution of the Republic of Cote d'Ivoire 3 November 1960 (1960): 3-4.

English translation of the French original text of the Constitution of 2000. "Chapter I: Of the Freedoms and of the Rights," Constitution of the Republic of Cote d'Ivoire 1 August 2000 (2000): 3-5
JamaicaFreedom of ExpressionArticle 22 of the 1960 Jamaica Constitution protects freedom of expression.

References:

English original text of the Constitution of 1962 820 (2011)

Chapter III: Fundamental Rights and Freedoms: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzjm0004&id=15&men_tab=srchresults
JapanFreedom of ExpressionArticle 29 of the 1889 Japan Constitution stated: "Japanese subjects shall within the limits of the law, enjoy the liberty of speech, writing, publication, public meeting and association."

Article 21 of Japan's 1947 Constitution guaranteed the right more broadly: "Freedom of assembly and association as well as speech, press and all other forms of expression are guaranteed."

References:

1889 Japan Constitution: https://constituteproject.org/constitution/Japan_1889

1946 Japan Constitution: https://japan.kantei.go.jp/constitution_and_government_of_japan/constitution_e.html
JordanFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
KazakhstanFreedom of ExpressionArticle 10 of the 1993 Kazakhstan Constitution states: "A citizen of the Republic shall have the right to freedom of speech, creed and their free expression. Nobody can be forced to express his views or be persecuted for having convictions."

References:

"The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan," International Legal Perspectives 5, no. 1 (1993): 111
KenyaFreedom of ExpressionFreedom of expression is protected in Kenya’s first Constitution, which was ratified in 1963. Chapter II Article 14b states that “Whereas every person in Kenya is entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, the right, whatever his race, tribe, place of origin or residence or other local connexion, political opinions, colour, creed or sex, but subject to respect for the rights and freedoms of others and for the public interest, to each and all of the following, namely: …freedom of conscience, of expression and of assembly and association…”. This is further elaborated in Article 23(1): "Except with his own consent, no. person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of expression, that is to say, freedom to hold opinions without interference, freedom to receive ideas and information without interference, freedom to communicate ideas and information without interference (whether the communication be to the public generally or to any person or class of persons) and freedom from interference with his correspondence."

Article 24(2) of the 1963 Constitution articulated the grounds for potential exception, or considerations relevant to conflict among rights and/or laws relevant to freedom of expression: "Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision— (a) that is reasonably required in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health; or (b) that is reasonably required for the purpose of protecting the reputations, rights and freedoms of other persons or the private lives of persons concerned in legal proceedings, pre- venting the disclosure of information received in confidence, maintaining the authority and independence of the courts or regulating the technical administration or the technical operation of telephony, telegraphy, posts, wireless broadcasting or television; or (c) that imposes restrictions upon public officers, and except so far as that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society."

The language found in Articles 14(b) and 23(1) of the 1963 Constitutions is repeated in Articles 70 and 79(1) of the the 1969 Constitution. The language from 23(2) of the 1963 Constitution is also repeated in Article 79(2) of the 1969 Constitution, but further points are added to Article 79(2) of the 1969 Constitution.

References:

1963 Constitution of Kenya: http://kenyalaw.org/kl/fileadmin/pdfdownloads/1963_Constitution.pdf

1969 Constitution of Kenya: https://repository.kippra.or.ke/bitstream/handle/123456789/2324/THE%20CONSTITUTION%20OF%20KENYA%20ACT%201969%20No%205.%20of%201969.pdf?sequence=1
Kingdom of the NetherlandsFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
KiribatiFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
KuwaitFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
KyrgyzstanFreedom of ExpressionAccording to Article 16.2 of the 1993 Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic as amended in February 1996, "Every person in the Kyrgyz Republic shall enjoy the right ... to free expression and dissemination of one's thoughts, ideas, opinions."

References:

1993 Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic as amended in February 1996: http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/research/kyrgyzrepublic-constitution.html
LaosFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
LatviaFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
LebanonFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
LesothoFreedom of ExpressionFreedom of expression was asserted in the 1966 Lesotho Constitution, as well as in the 2010 Lesotho Constitution.

References:

1966 Lesotho Constitution: O’LEARY, B. L. “THE CONSTITUTION OF LESOTHO: AN OUTLINE.” The Comparative and International Law Journal of Southern Africa 1, no. 2 (1968): 266–70. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23240737.

1993 Lesotho Constitution:https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Lesotho_2018.
LiberiaFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
LibyaFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
LiechtensteinFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
LithuaniaFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
LuxembourgFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
MadagascarFreedom of ExpressionAccording to the preamble of the 1959 Constitution of the Malagasy Republic, "freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, freedom of association and freedom to unionize shall be guaranteed under conditions stipulated by law"

References:

1959 Constitution of the Malagasy Republic: "Preamble," Constitution of the Malagasy Republic (1959): 1-4: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzmg0017&id=4&men_tab=srchresults
MalawiFreedom of ExpressionAccording to the 1964 Constitution of Malawi, Article 20(1): “Except with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of expression, including freedom to hold opinions without interference, freedom to receive ideas and information without interference, freedom to communicate ideas and information without interference (whether the communication to be the public generally or to any person or class of persons) and freedom from interference with his correspondence.”

References:

1964 Malawi Constitution: http://citizenshiprightsafrica.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/03/Malawi-Constitution-1964.pdf
MalaysiaFreedom of ExpressionThe 1957 Constitution of Malaysia declares in Article 10, Section 1(a) that "every citizen has the right to freedom of speech and expression." Article 10, Section 2(a) modifies this, stating: "Parliament may by law impose ... on the rights conferred by paragraph (a) of Clause (1),such restrictions as it deems necessary or expedient in the interest of the security of the Federation or any part thereof, friendly relations with other countries, public order or morality and restrictions designed to protect the privileges of Parliament or of any Legislative Assembly or to provide against contempt of court, defamation, or incitement to any offence".

References:

1957 Malaysia Constitution: http://www.commonlii.org/my/legis/const/1957/2.html
MaldivesFreedom of ExpressionArticles 13 and 14 of the 1969 Constitution of the Republic of Maldives As Amended to 1975 are relevant to freedom of expression. Article 13 describes this right directly: "Every person has freedom of speech and expression of thought, orally and in writing, so long as the express provisions of Shariath and the law are not contravened." Article 14 is relevant to freedom of expression as well: "There exists freedom of acquiring knowledge and imparting it to others in

a manner that does not contravene Shariath or law."

References:

1969 Constitution of the Republic of Maldives As Amended to 1975: Peaslee Amos J.; Xydis, Dorothy Peaslee. Constitutions of Nation. The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff.: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/ctituson0002&id=723#
MaliFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
MaltaFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
Marshall IslandsFreedom of ExpressionArticle 2, Section 1(1) of the 1979 Constitution of the Republic of the Marshall Islands guarantees freedom of speech. Article 2, Section 1(2) describes conditions for exceptions to this rule: "Nothing in this Section shall be construed to invalidate reasonable restrictions imposed by law on the time, place, or manner of conduct, provided: (a) the restrictions are necessary to preserve public peace, order, health, or security or the rights or freedoms of others; (b) there exist no less restrictive means of doing so; and (c) the restrictions do not penalize conduct on the basis of disagreement with the ideas or beliefs expressed."

References:

1979 Constitution of the Republic of the Marshall Islands: https://rmiparliament.org/cms/constitution.html?showall=1
MauritaniaFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
MauritiusFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
MexicoFreedom of ExpressionThe Mexican Constitutions of 1857 and 1917 both protect the citizens right to freedom of expression. “Political Constitution of the United Mexican States - UNAM.” UNAM. Accessed November 14, 2022. https://www2.juridicas.unam.mx/constitucion-reordenada-consolidada/en/vigente.
MoldovaFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
MonacoFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
MongoliaFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
MontenegroFreedom of ExpressionAccording to Article 208 if the 1905 Constitution: "Every Montenegrin citizen has the right, within the

limits of the law, to manifest his ideas by speech, writing, the press, and efigraving."

1905 Montenegro Constitution: English translation from the French text of the original Constitution of 1905 "Part 14: The Constitutional Rights of Montenegrin Citizens," Constitution of 6/19 December 1905. (1905): 426-427: https://heinonline-org.mutex.gmu.edu/HOL/Page?handle=hein.cow/zzmb0013&id=20&collection=cow&index=
MoroccoFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
MozambiqueFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
MyanmarFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
NamibiaFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
NauruFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
NepalFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
New ZealandFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
NicaraguaFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
NigerFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
NigeriaFreedom of ExpressionFederal Republic of Nigeria constitution ( 1958)
North KoreaFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
North MacedoniaFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
NorwayFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
OmanFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
PakistanFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
PalauFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
PanamaFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
Papua New GuineaFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
ParaguayFreedom of ExpressionArticle 18 of the 1870 Constitution of Paraguay includes a reference to the right of inhabitants of Paraguay "to teach and to learn", and Article 23 protects "Private acts, which in no way affect public order or morals or do wrong to third parties." Article 72 of the 1967 Constitution of Paraguay offered an explicit guarantee of freedom of expression in peacetime.

References:

English Translation of the Spanish Original Text of the Constitution of 1870 4-5 (2022) Chapter II: Rights and Guarantees: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzpy0009&id=5&men_tab=srchresults

English Translation of the Spanish Original Text of the Constitution of 1967 10 (2022)

Section 1: Individual Rights: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzpy0027&id=12&men_tab=srchresults
PeruFreedom of ExpressionArticle 2 of the 1993 Constitution of Peru asserts the right of every person "To freedom of information, opinion, expression, and dissemination of thought, whether oral, written, or in images, through any medium of social communication, and without previous authorization, censorship, or impediment, under penalty of law." https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Peru_2021?lang=en.
PhilippinesFreedom of ExpressionArticle 4, Section 9 of the Republic of the Philippines 1973 Constitution contains the first assertion of freedom of speech in the country’s independent history. “1973 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines.” Official Gazette of the Philippines. Accessed July 17, 2023. https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/constitutions/1973-constitution-of-the-republic-of-the-philippines-2/
PolandFreedom of ExpressionThe Constitution of 1997 was the first document to protect freedom of expression in the present-day Republic of Poland, with Article 54 specifically outlining the right. That said, past Polish governments have protected this right through a variety of legal documents, the earliest being the 1921 Constitution of the Republic of Poland.

“Constitution of the Republic of Poland, March 17 1921.” Sejm of the Republic of Poland. Accessed July 17, 2023. http://libr.sejm.gov.pl/tek01/txt/kpol/e1921.html

“Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 2nd April, 1997.” Sejm of the Republic of Poland. Accessed July 17, 2023. https://www.sejm.gov.pl/prawo/konst/angielski/kon1.htm
PortugalFreedom of ExpressionArticle 37 of Portugal’s 1976 Constitution is the first assertion of freedom of expression in the present-day Portuguese Republic. Other Portuguese governments have also protected this right, with its earliest assertion found in Article 145(3) of the Kingdom of Portugal’s 1822 Constitution.

“Constitutional Charter of Portugal.” World Constitutions Illustrated, Heinonline. Accessed July 17, 2023. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.beal/modern0002&i=160

“Constitution of the Portuguese Republic.” University of Minnesota Human Rights Library. Accessed July 17. http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/research/portugal-constitution.html
QatarFreedom of ExpressionQatar’s Constitution of 2004 was the first document in the country’s history to protect freedom of expression. Article 47 specifically outlines this right, adding that it “is guaranteed in accordance with the conditions and circumstances set forth in the law.” “The Constitution.” Government Communications Office of the State of Qatar. Accessed July 17, 2023. https://www.gco.gov.qa/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/GCO-Constitution-English.pdf
Republic of IrelandFreedom of Expression{{{contents}}}
Republic of the CongoFreedom of ExpressionIn the Republic of the Congo Article 25 of the 2015 guarantees freedom of expression. The article also expressly prohibits government censorship of the free media. “Congo (Republic of the) 2015 Constitution.” Constitute. Last modified 2015. Accessed September 20, 2022. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Congo_2015?lang=en.
RomaniaFreedom of ExpressionFreedom of expression was first protected by Romania’s current semi-presidential regime through Article 30 of the country’s 1991 Constitution. However, the right was first protected in the land when it was known as the Kingdom of Romania through the 1866 Constitution.

“Constitution of 30 June/12 July 1866, as Amended 13/25 October 1876 and 8/20 June 1884.” World Constitutions Illustrated, Heinonline. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.cow/stwar0001&i=525

“The Constitution of Romania.” President of Romania. Accessed July 17, 2023. https://www.presidency.ro/en/the-constitution-of-romania
RussiaFreedom of ExpressionArticle 29 of the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation is the first assertion of freedom of expression in the country’s independent history. That said, under the Russian Socialist Soviet Republic Russians this right was articulated as early as 1923 through the Constitution (Basic Law) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

“Constitution of the Russian Federation.” University of Minnesota Human Rights Library. Accessed July 17, 2023. http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/research/constitution-russia.html

“Constitution (Basic Law) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 1923/24.” World Constitutions Illustrated, Heinonline. Accessed July 17, 2023. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/intcon5&i=426
RwandaFreedom of ExpressionFreedom of expression is first mentioned in Article 18 of Rwanda’s first constitution, which entered into law in 1962. However, the document does place limits on the right in accordance with other laws, public security, and the honor of others. “Constitution de la République Rwandaise.” Library of Congress. Accessed July 10, 2023. https://www.loc.gov/item/2008700213/#:~:text=Summary,from%20the%20neighboring%20Belgian%20Congo.
Saint Kitts and NevisFreedom of ExpressionThe Constitution of St. Kitts and Nevis, adopted in 1983, first protected freedom of expression in its 12th amendment. The section also stipulates that this right can be limited as “reasonably required” for a variety of public interests. “The Constitution of Saint Christopher and Nevis.” The Government of St. Kitts and Nevis. Accessed July 10, 2023. https://www.gov.kn/the-constitution/
Saint LuciaFreedom of ExpressionSt. Lucia first protected freedom of expression in the preamble as well as the 1st and 10th articles of its 1978 Constitution. Article 10 lists several exceptions to the right, including public interests and the protection of the rights of others. “Saint Lucia 1978.” Constitute. Accessed July 10, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/St_Lucia_1978
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesFreedom of ExpressionAdopted in 1979, the Constitution of St. Vincent and the Grenadines is the first document in the country’s history to protect freedom of expression. This right is specifically mentioned in Article 1(b). “Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1979.” Constitute. Accessed July 11, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/St_Vincent_and_the_Grenadines_1979
SamoaFreedom of ExpressionArticle 13(1)(a) of Samoa’s 1962 Constitution is the first assertion of freedom of expression in the country’s history. The article also states that this right can be limited for various reasons including public interests and national security. “Samos’s Constitution of 1962 with Amendments through 2017.” Constitute. Accessed July 11, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Samoa_2017.pdf?lang=en
San MarinoFreedom of ExpressionFreedom of expression was first protected by Article 6 of San Marino Law 59, adopted in 1974. Also known as the Declaration of Citizen Rights, this legislation only allows for the limitation of this right in exceptional cases or to uphold public interests. “Decreto 8 luglio 2002 n. 79 Repubblica di San Marino.” FAO. Accessed July 11, 2023. https://www.fao.org/faolex/results/details/es/c/LEX-FAOC127860/
Saudi ArabiaFreedom of ExpressionFreedom of expression is not protected by any legal measures in Saudi Arabia. Expression itself is only mentioned in Article 39 of the Basic Law of Governance, adopted in 1992. It states that “mass media and all other vehicles of expression shall employ civil and polite language, contribute towards the education of the nation and strengthen unity. It is prohibited to commit acts leading to disorder and division, affecting the security of the state and its public relations, or undermining human dignity and rights.” “Basic Law of Governance.” The Embassy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Accessed July 11, 2023. https://www.saudiembassy.net/basic-law-governance
SenegalFreedom of ExpressionFreedom of expression was first mentioned in Article 4 of Senegal’s 1959 Constitution. However, as a part of the Mali Federation, the right was guaranteed by the 1959 Constitution of the Mali Federation.

“Constitution de la Federation du Mali 1959.” World Constitutions Illustrated, HeinOnline. Accessed July 11, 2023. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.cow/zzsn0015&i=1

“Constitution of the Republic of Senegal 24 January 1959.” World Constitutions Illustrated, Heinonline. Accessed July 11, 2023. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.cow/zzsn0033&i=4
SerbiaFreedom of ExpressionArticle 46 of the 2006 Serbian Constitution is the first assertion of freedom of expression in the Republic of Serbia as it is known today. That said, the right has been protected in other historical documents that governed the land prior to the present-day regime; these include the Constitution of the Principality of Serbia (1869) and the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992).

“Constitution de la Principauté de Serbie.” World Constitutions Illustrated, Heinonline. Accessed July 11, 2023. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.cow/zzcs0005&i=1

“Constitution of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.” Refworld. Accessed July 11, 2023. https://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b54e10.html

“Serbia’s Constitution of 2006.” Constitute. Accessed July 11, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Serbia_2006.pdf?lang=en
SeychellesFreedom of ExpressionFreedom of expression was first protected under Article 21 of the Seychelles Independence Constitution of 1976. The section stipulates that this right can be limited for the purposes of public interests and protection of the rights of others. “Seychelles Independence Constitution 1976.” Citizenship Rights Africa. Accessed June 12, 2023. http://citizenshiprightsafrica.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/Seychelles-Independence-Constitution-1976.pdf
Sierra LeoneFreedom of ExpressionArticle 21 of the 1961 Constitution of Sierra Leone contains the first assertion of freedom of expression in the country’s independent history. The Article also allows limitations on this right for the protection of public interests and other rights of individuals. “Constitution of Sierra Leone.” World Constitutions Illustrated, Heinonline. Accessed Jlu 14, 2023. https://heinonline-org.offcampus.lib.washington.edu/HOL/COWShow?collection=cow&cow_id=366#:~:text=Unattributed%20%5Bundated%5D%20%2D%20English
SingaporeFreedom of ExpressionFreedom of expression was first asserted in Article 14(1) of Singapore’s 1963 Constitution. The right is subject to limitations on the grounds of security, public interest, and more. “Singapore 1963 (rev. 2016).” Constitute. Accessed July 12, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Singapore_2016?lang=en
SlovakiaFreedom of ExpressionThe Constitution of the Slovak Republic was the first document in the country’s independent history to protect freedom of expression. This right was specifically expressed in Article 26, which also allows for limitations on expression as “necessary in a democratic society.” “Slovakia’s Constitution of 1992 with Amendments through 2017.” Constitute. Accessed July 12, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Slovakia_2017.pdf?lang=en
SloveniaFreedom of ExpressionFreedom of expression was first asserted in an independent Slovenia under its Constitution of 1991. Article 39 of the document specifically outlines this right. “Slovenia’s Constitution of 1991 with Amendments through 2013.” Constitute. Accessed July 12, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Slovenia_2013.pdf
Solomon IslandsFreedom of ExpressionThe Solomon Islands’ Constitution of 1978 was the first document in the country’s independent history to protect freedom of expression. Article 12 specifically defines this right and its limitations related to public interests. “Solomon Islands 1978 (rev. 2018).” Constitute. Accessed July 12, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Solomon_Islands_2018
SomaliaFreedom of ExpressionThe Constitution of the Somali Republic, adopted in 1960, is the first assertion of freedom of expression in the country’s history. The right was specifically outlined in Article 28, which also defined limitations as “prescribed by law for the purpose of safeguarding morals and public security.” “The Constitution of the Somali Republic.” Citizenship Rights Africa. Accessed July 13, 2023, http://citizenshiprightsafrica.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Somalia-Constitution-1960.pdf
South AfricaFreedom of ExpressionFreedom of expression was first protected under South Africa’s Interim Constitution of 1993. Article 15(1) specifically defines the right. “Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act 200 of 1993 [repealed].” Government of South Africa. Accessed July 13, 2023. https://www.gov.za/documents/constitution/constitution-republic-south-africa-act-200-1993#Fundamental%20Rights
South KoreaFreedom of ExpressionArticle 21 of South Korea’s 1948 Constitution is the first assertion of freedom of speech in the country’s independent history. The law also states that the right may not be expressed in a way that violates the honor of others or undermines morals and ethics. “Korea (Republic of) 1948 (rev. 1987).” Constitute. Accessed July 12, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Republic_of_Korea_1987
South SudanFreedom of ExpressionArticle 24 of South Sudan’s 2011 Constitution is the first assertion of freedom of expression in the country’s independent history. That said, the South Sudanese people were granted this right in 1973 through the Permanent Constitution of Sudan before their country seceded from the Republic of Sudan.

“The Permanent Constitution of the Sudan.” World Constitutions Illustrated, Heinonline. Accessed July 13, 2023. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.cow/zzsd0013&i=1

“South Sudan 2011 (rev. 2013).” Constitute. Accessed July 13, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/South_Sudan_2013
SpainFreedom of ExpressionArticle 17 of the Spanish Constitution of 1869 was the first specific assertion of freedom of expression in the country’s history. However, Spaniards were granted a form of this right, the freedom to print and publish their ideas, in the Constitution of 1837.

“Spain Constitution of 1869 - Translated by Luis Francisco Valle Velasco.” World Constitutions Illustrated, Heinonline. Accessed July 13, 2023. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.cow/zzes0128&i=1

“Spain’s Constitution of 1837.” Constitute. Accessed July 13, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Spain_1837.pdf?lang=en
Sri LankaFreedom of ExpressionFreedom of expression was first protected in Sri Lanka’s 1973 Constitution. Article 18 (1)(g) specifically defines this right, as well as some limitations to it based on public interests. “Constitution of Sri Lanka (Ceylon).” The Parliament of Sri Lanka. Accessed July 13, 2023. https://www.parliament.lk/files/ca/4.%20The%20Constitution%20of%20Sri%20Lanka%20%20-%20%201972%20(Article%20105%20%E2%80%93134)%20Chapter%20XIII.pdf
SudanFreedom of ExpressionSudan’s Constitution of 1973 is the first document to protect freedom of expression in the country’s history. Article 48 specifically defines the right. “The Permanent Constitution of the Sudan.” World Constitutions Illustrated, Heinonline. Accessed July 13, 2023. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.cow/zzsd0013&i=1
SurinameFreedom of ExpressionSuriname’s Constitution of 1987 establishes freedom of expression. Article 19 specifically outlines the right. “Suriname 1987 (rev. 1992).” Constitute. Accessed July 13, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Surinam_1992
SwedenFreedom of ExpressionFreedom of expression was first specifically asserted in Sweden through Article 1 of the Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression, adopted in 1991. However, freedom of the press, and thus expression through writing, has existed in the country since the adoption of the Freedom of Print Act in 1776.

“Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression.” Sveriges Riksdag. Accessed July 12, 2023. https://www.riksdagen.se/globalassets/05.-sa-fungerar-riksdagen/demokrati/the-fundamental-law-on-freedom-of-expression.pdf

Nordin, Jonas. “The Swedish Freedom of Print Act of 1776 - Background and Significance.” Journal of International Media and Entertainment Law 7, no. 2 (2018): 137-144. https://www.swlaw.edu/sites/default/files/2018-04/Nordin%20Pages%20from%207.2%20FULL%20v7%20%284_13_18%29_.pdf
SwitzerlandFreedom of ExpressionArticle 16 of Switzerland’s 1999 Constitution is the first explicit assertion of freedom of expression in the country’s history. However, prior to the adoption of that document, the Swiss Federal Tribunal recognized the right as an unwritten fundamental liberty.

Hertig Randall, Maya. “The Swiss Federal Bill of Rights in the Context of International Human Rights Protection: Added Value and Shortcomings.” Revue Interdisciplinaire d'Études Juridiques, 77 no. 2 (2016): 151-177. https://www.cairn.info/revue-interdisciplinaire-d-etudes-juridiques-2016-2-page-151.htm#re25no25

“Switzerland’s Constitution of 1999 with Amendments through 2014.” Constitute. Accessed July 12, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Switzerland_2014.pdf?lang=en
SyriaFreedom of ExpressionThe Syrian Constitution of 1930 was the first document to protect freedom of expression in the country’s history. Article 16 specifically outlined the right and stated that it was “subject to the provisions of the law.” “Syria Constitution (1930).” World Statesmen. Accessed July 13, 2023. https://www.worldstatesmen.org/Syria-Constitution1930.docx
São Tomé and PríncipeFreedom of ExpressionSão Tomé and Príncipe’s 1975 Constitution is the first legal document in the country’s history to protect freedom of expression. Article 29 specifically outlines this right. “São Tomé and Príncipe Constitution of 1975 with Amendments through 2003.” Constitute. Accessed July 11, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Sao_Tome_and_Principe_2003.pdf?lang=en
TajikistanFreedom of ExpressionArticle 30 of Tajikistan’s constitution guarantees freedom of speech and prohibits state censorship, while Article 40 guarantees the right to freely create. The document was first adopted in 1994; however, as citizens of a Soviet Republic in the 1980s, the people of Tajikistan were granted some freedom of expression as a result of Mikhail Gorbachev’s glasnost (“openness”) and perestroika (“restructuring”) policies prior to independence.

“Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan.” General Prosecutor’s Office of the Republic of Tajikistan. Accessed June 26, 2023. https://www.prokuratura.tj/en/legislation/the-constitution-of-the-republic-of-tajikistan.html

“Revelations from the Russian Archives - Internal Workings of the Soviet Union.” Library of Congress. Accessed June 28, 2023. https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/intn.html
TanzaniaFreedom of ExpressionFreedom of expression is initially mentioned in the Second Schedule of Tanzania’s first constitution. The document was established in 1961 after the country gained independence from the United Kingdom. “The Tanganyika (Constitution) Order in Council, 1961.” Citizenship Rights Africa. Accessed June 26, 2023. http://citizenshiprightsafrica.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Tanganyika-Constitution-Order-in-Council-1961-SI-2274.pdf
ThailandFreedom of ExpressionThailand’s 1932 constitution was the first document in the state’s history to protect freedom of speech. Article 14 guaranteed this right, though it was “subject to the provisions of the law.” “Thailand Constitution 1932.” Bloomsbury Professional. Accessed June 28, 2023. https://media.bloomsburyprofessional.com/rep/files/thailand-constitution-1932-december.pdf
The BahamasFreedom of ExpressionIn The Bahamas Freedom of expression in the 23rd article of the third chapter of the constitution. The constitution signed into law in July of 1973 has remained the ruling doctrine ever since. “The Bahamas Constitution.” The Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas - Government - Details. Last modified 1973. Accessed September 14, 2022. https://www.bahamas.gov.bs/wps/portal/public/About%20The%20Bahamas/Constitution/!ut/p/b1/vVPLdqJAEP2WfMCEbugHLDvyEJXmjcCGoxjBR4MKavDrx8zMIplzJtlM0r3q07fqVt1bJeVSKuXN4rKpFv2mbRb713dOCgVYDmNIdSwMCLBjb8Y8OpZdiO-A7AMAAr_jLRc5xv3bNUcM2NBAY8XXFRACaS6lUSa_6J1dWXawPvjdlgUHmyQ1X-n2eXaGm8pDvWAjXngpfomxq0HlXHal4CdhWEorGw2hKaZN88RCoybHS83j56ZuT5d9lEZDuH7BnXIaYx5TS8jVFKXzOnPYygfE6IrjVQSJmFomrxVe50cnSkvNxEPVHkjdreJzTzLjDLq9eTTzJVi6bao6qfYMnnD18PCnf_CPw8Bn-k2kfLMUj9dSPIJHqEAKZUgRpVTDGJK7PPmHGabyJ4BXB34BPigxuwPomwxRAu4mARaE0Acqh1IkpQAV4XY42LfdLdiCq8xnJXD0wIM7AKNomfDIGhw-4eEpcGAMbmGUT5ybD7tdNfQ88lZJED8xnS1gfPmb0JUj7U44gmQa4_tQoK8mtLCr3jWikcewDCwXfjeh8q2SWp4LvrzDd0OD_P_v4btNUTUCMVWRphKAkEqlZJshqqv2VbejYtT240WndU_-bm6wXifZrOSbTSDaMtRUq5jgcG9Ul6gpf8wvqjOlsN1Re8QOYneMLHcG9-dKXmdnlqWtS0Zu_RwnpqmfmrBq5iNNmMeBzfr1FhU6r-LbnJiBzAmQJ7dCDCFZ9qG69NStKKnZ3PLsNk01OxO-j16AX-xXXbwD03mXljOvahWrXImegCr0lvU4qUBy2TY1OY2HfL4YljKie5Upsk0X6EHi41Y8SwcRX2Z4Yqz524sefgIOCsrJ/dl4/d5/L2dBISEvZ0FBIS9nQSEh/.
The GambiaFreedom of ExpressionThe first protection of the freedom of expression in The Gambia came in the 1996 constitution.
TogoFreedom of ExpressionThe 1963 constitution is the first instance where freedom of expression is outlined in the Togolese legal system. Article 12 of the document officially enshrines the right into law. “Constitution de la République Togolaise, 5 Mai 1963.” Library of Congress. Accessed June 26, 2023. https://www.loc.gov/item/2008700247/#amp=&page=5&item_type=book
TongaFreedom of ExpressionTonga’s constitution, adopted in 1875, protects freedom of speech in the first clause of its 7th Article. However, the clause also states that this right “does not outweigh the law of defamation, official secrets, or the laws protecting the King and the Royal Family.” “Tonga’s Constitution of 1875 with Amendments Through 2013.” Constitute. Accessed June 26, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Tonga_2013.pdf?lang=en
Trinidad and TobagoFreedom of ExpressionThe Trinidad and Tobago (Constitution) Order in Council of 1962 was the first document to establish freedom of expression in the country. The right is specifically outlined in Section 1(i) of the chapter entitled “The Recognition and Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.” “Trinidad and Tobago (Constitution) Order in Council 1962.” Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Accessed June 26, 2023. http://laws.gov.tt/pdf/A7.pdf
TunisiaFreedom of ExpressionFreedom of expression was first guaranteed under Article 8 of Tunisia’s first constitution after gaining independence from France. The document was adopted in 1959 with periodical amendments through 2008. “Tunisia’s Constitution of 1959 with Amendments through 2008.” Constitute. Accessed June 26, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Tunisia_2008.pdf
TurkeyFreedom of ExpressionThe Turkish Constitution of 1924 is the first document that implemented freedom of speech, conscience, and thought into the country’s law. These rights were laid out in Section V, Article 70. Earle, Edward M. “The New Constitution of Turkey.” Political Science Quarterly. Vol. 40. No. 1 (Mar., 1925), pp-73-100. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2142408
TurkmenistanFreedom of ExpressionTurkmenistan’s 1992 constitution was the first legal document to protect the freedoms of conviction and expression in the state’s history, with the rights outlined in Article 26. That said, during the 1980s when the country was a Soviet Republic there were some opportunities for freedom of expression as a result of Mikhail Gorbachev’s glasnost (“openness”) and perestroika (“restructuring”) policies.

“Constitution of Turkmenistan.” University of Minnesota Human Rights Library. Accessed June 26, 2023. http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/research/turkmenistan-constitution.html

“Revelations from the Russian Archives - Internal Workings of the Soviet Union.” Library of Congress. Accessed June 28, 2023. https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/intn.html
TuvaluFreedom of ExpressionFreedom of expression was first outlined in Tuvalu’s 1978 constitution. Section 11 of the document mentions the right briefly, while Section 24 defines it more specifically and stipulates some exceptions in regards to public interests such as safety, defense, and health. “Constitution of Tuvalu.” Tuvalu Government. Accessed June 26, 2023. https://www.gov.tv/tuvalu-constitution/
UgandaFreedom of ExpressionUganda’s 1962 constitution is the original document that guaranteed freedom of expression for the country’s citizens. The right is expressly mentioned in Article 17(b); however, the section also states that the right may be limited to protect public interests and the liberties of others. “Uganda Constitution (Order in Council) 1962.” World Statesmen. Accessed June 27, 2023. https://www.worldstatesmen.org/Uganda-const-1962.pdf
UkraineFreedom of ExpressionArticle 34 of the Ukrainian Constitution, adopted in 1996, guarantees freedom of expression for all Ukrainians. The same article also stipulates different limitations on this right, most of which are based on public interests. Prior to their independence from the Soviet Union, Ukrainians had also been able to enjoy some freedom of expression as a result of Mikhail Gorbachev’s glasnost (“openness”) and perestroika (“restructuring”) policies during the 1980s.

“Constitution of Ukraine.” Council of Europe. Accessed June 28, 2023. https://rm.coe.int/constitution-of-ukraine/168071f58b

“Revelations from the Russian Archives - Internal Workings of the Soviet Union.” Library of Congress. Accessed June 28, 2023. https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/intn.html
United Arab EmiratesFreedom of ExpressionFreedom of expression was first mentioned in Article 30 of the United Arab Emirates’ 1971 constitution. However, the document only guarantees this freedom “within the limits of the law.” “United Arab Emirates 1971 (rev. 2004).” Constitute. Accessed June 27, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/United_Arab_Emirates_2004?lang=en
United KingdomFreedom of ExpressionFreedom of expression was first codified in the United Kingdom through the Human Rights Act of 1998. This piece of legislation protected the liberties guaranteed by the European Convention on Human Rights, including Article 10, which states that “everyone has the right to freedom of expression” (“European Convention on Human Rights” 1953, 12). That said, prior to the ratification of the HRA freedom of speech had a somewhat ambiguous protected status, with some courts in the UK suggesting that common law recognized the right (Barendt 2009, 1).

Barendt, Eric. “Freedom of Expression in the United Kingdom Under the Human Rights Act 1998.” Indiana Law Journal Vol. 84, Iss. 3, Art. 4 (Summer 2009). https://www.repository.law.indiana.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1125&context=ilj “European Convention on Human Rights.” Council of Europe. Accessed June 27, 2023. https://www.echr.coe.int/documents/d/echr/convention_eng

“Human Rights Act of 1998.” Government of the United Kingdom. Accessed June 27, 2023. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1998/42/section/1
United StatesFreedom of ExpressionThe 1st Amendment to the US Constitution was the earliest piece of federal legislation in the country’s history to protect freedom of speech. The original document became law in 1788, while the Bill of Rights, which included the First Amendment, was ratified in 1791. “The United States Constitution.” National Constitution Center. Accessed June 27, 2023. https://constitutioncenter.org/the-constitution/full-text
UruguayFreedom of ExpressionThe Constitution of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, adopted in 1830, was the first document to guarantee freedom of speech after the country gained independence from Spain. Article 29 protects this right through all methods of circulation, while also stipulating that individuals “may be held liable, in accordance with the law, for abuses which they may commit.” “The Constitution of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay.” Refworld. Accessed June 27, 2023. https://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b5600.html
UzbekistanFreedom of ExpressionThe Constitution of Uzbekistan, adopted in 1992, protects freedom of thought, speech, and convictions in Article 33. Prior to their independence from the Soviet Union, however, citizens of Uzbekistan were able to enjoy some freedom of expression as a result of Mikhail Gorbachev’s glasnost (“openness”) and perestroika (“restructuring”) policies of the 1980s.

“Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan.” Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Accessed June 28, 2023. https://constitution.uz/en/clause/index#section7

“Revelations from the Russian Archives - Internal Workings of the Soviet Union.” Library of Congress. Accessed June 28, 2023. https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/intn.html
VanuatuFreedom of ExpressionArticle 5(1)(g) of Vanuatu’s constitution was the first legal document to recognize freedom of expression as a fundamental right of the country’s citizens. The body of laws was adopted in 1980, shortly after gaining independence from France. “Laws of the Republic of Vanuatu.” Government of Vanuatu. Accessed June 27, 2023. https://www.gov.vu/images/legislation/constitution-en.pdf
VenezuelaFreedom of ExpressionArticle 181 of the Constitution of the Federal States of Venezuela, adopted in 1811, was the first document in the country’s history to mention freedom of expression through print. However, Article 4 of the country’s 1819 constitution was the first to guarantee the right to express using all mediums, except in cases where it interfered with “public tranquility, good customs, life, honor, esteem, and individual property.”

“Constitución Federal de 1811.” Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes. Accessed June 27, 2023. https://www.cervantesvirtual.com/obra-visor/constitucion-federal-de-los-estados-de-venezuela-21-de-diciembre-1811/html/86de8dbc-4b14-4131-a616-9a65e65e856a_2.html

“Constitución - 1819.” Instituto Geográfico de Venezuela Simón Bolívar. Accessed June 27, 2023. https://web.archive.org/web/20171201034609/http://www.igvsb.gob.ve/marco_legal/upload/archivos/CONSTITUCION%201819.pdf
VietnamFreedom of ExpressionIn 1946, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam adopted a constitution which became the country’s first legal document to enshrine freedom of speech into law. Article 10(i) specifically protected this right for Vietnamese citizens. “Vietnamese Constitution 1946.” Bloomsbury Professional. Accessed June 27, 2023. https://media.bloomsburyprofessional.com/rep/files/vietnam-constitution-1946x.pdf
YemenFreedom of ExpressionArticle 26 of the Yemeni constitution guarantees freedom of thought and free expression of opinions. The document was adopted in 1991, when South Yemen and the Yemen Arab Republic united. “Constitution of Yemen.” University of Minnesota Human Rights Library. Accessed June 27. http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/research/yemen-constitution.html
ZambiaFreedom of ExpressionFreedom of expression was first legally protected in Zambia under its 1964 constitution. Article 22 of the document defines and guarantees this right, while stating that limitations can be enforced based on public interests, protection of the rights of others, and more. “The Constitution of Zambia.” Citizenship Rights Africa. Accessed June 27, 2023. http://citizenshiprightsafrica.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Zambia-Constitution-1964.pdf
ZimbabweFreedom of ExpressionZimbabwe’s constitution of 1980 is the first document in the country’s history to protect freedom of expression. Section 20 goes into specific detail about this right, and codifies some exceptions related to public interests and protections.

“Zimbabwe Constitution 1980 up to 17th Amendment.” Zimbabwe Legal Resources Website. Accessed June 27, 2023.

https://www.law.co.zw/download/zimbabwe-constitution-1980-up-to-17th-amendment/
AfghanistanFreedom of ReligionAccording to Article two of the 1964 Constitution of Afghanistan: "Islam is the sacred religion of Afghanistan. Religious rites performed by the State shall be according to the provisions of the Hanafi doctrine. Non-Muslim citizens shall be free to perform their rituals within the limits determined by laws for public decency and public peace."

References:

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Afghanistan_1964
AlbaniaFreedom of ReligionAccording to the 1928 Fundamental Statute of the Kingdom of Albania: "The Albanian State has no official religion. All religions and creeds are respected, and freedom of worship and religious observances is guaranteed."

The current Albanian constitution guarantees religious freedom in Article 10. The Constitution of the Republic of Albania was passed on November 28th, 1998.

References:

1928 Fundamental Statute of the Kingdom of Albania: https://www.hoelseth.com/royalty/albania/albconst19281201.html

1998 Albania Constitution: https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Albania_2012
AlgeriaFreedom of ReligionFreedom of religion was first guaranteed in the Algerian Constitution of 1963. Article 4 of the document guarantees this right, while also stating that Islam is the state religion.

References:

“The Algerian Constitution.” The Middle East journal 17, no. 4 (1963): 446–450.

“Constitution of Algeria.” World Constitutions Illustrated, Heinonline. Accessed July 19, 2023. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.cow/zzdz0026&i=1
AndorraFreedom of ReligionAndorra’s 1993 Constitution is the first document in the country’s history to define freedom of religion. Article 6 protect one’s freedom from religious discrimination, while article 11 protects ones right to religious expression. “Andorra 1993.” Constitute. Accessed July 19, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Andorra_1993
AngolaFreedom of ReligionFreedom of religion was first protected by Article 7 of Angola’s 1975 Interim Constitution. It was later replaced by the Constitution of 1992, which also guaranteed the right. Article 10 of Angola’s 2010 constitution declares the country a secular state. Article 23 declares it illegal to discriminate based on religious affiliation. The constitution was ratified on January 21st, 2010.

References:

1975 Angola Constitution: “The Constitution of the People’s Republic of Angola.” World Constitutions Illustrated, Heinonline. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/rsl2&i=197

1992 Angola Constitution: https://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/Angola%20Constitution.pdf

2010 Angola Constitution: https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Angola_2010
Antigua and BarbudaFreedom of ReligionAntigua and Barbuda’s 1981 Constitution contains the first assertion of freedom of religion in the country’s independent history. Article 11 specifically outlines this right.

References:

1981 Antigua and Barbuda Constitution: “The Republic of Antigua and Barbuda Constitutional Order 1981.” Political Database of the Americas. Accessed July 19, 2023. https://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Antigua/antigua-barbuda.html
ArgentinaFreedom of ReligionThough not explicitly focused on religious freedom, the 1826 Argentina Constitution seems oriented in Article 162 to elements of freedom of belief as a general matter: "The private actions of Men, which do not in any manner offend publick order, nor injure a third Person, belong alone to God, and are exempt from the authority of the Magistracy." A few decades later, according to Juan G. Navarro Floria, the Constitutional language was more direct: "Setting aside the drafts of prior constitutional charters, the authors of Argentina’s 1853 Constitution emphatically proclaimed religious freedom for '[a]ll inhabitants'.” (Floria, 342) The Constitution establishes freedom of religion, but also gives "preferential legal status" to the Roman Catholic Church (U.S. Department of State, "ARGENTINA 2018 INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM REPORT").

References:

Constitution of the Argentine Republic, 1826, English translation of the original Constitution of 1826. 956 (2010) Section VIII: General Regulations: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.cow/zzar0004&id=15&collection=cow&index=

Juan G. Navarro Floria, Religious Freedom in the Argentine Republic: Twenty Years After the Declaration on the Elimination of Intolerance and Religious Discrimination, 2002 BYU L. Rev. 341 (2002). Available at: https://digitalcommons.law.byu.edu/lawreview/vol2002/iss2/8

"ARGENTINA 2018 INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM REPORT": https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/ARGENTINA-2018-INTERNATIONAL-RELIGIOUS-FREEDOM-REPORT.pdf
ArmeniaFreedom of ReligionThe 1990 Declaration of Independence of Armenia guaranteed freedom of conscience. The 1995 Constitution of Armenia contains a more detailed assertion of freedom of religion in Article 23: "Everyone is entitled to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion. The freedom to exercise one's religion and beliefs may only be restricted by law on the grounds prescribed in Article 45 of the Constitution. Amendment of the 1995 Armenia Constitution in 2005 resulted in still more specific articulation of the right: "Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right includes freedom to change the religion or belief and freedom to, either alone or in community with others manifest the religion or belief, through preaching, church ceremonies and other religious rites." In addition to this articulation of the protection of belief and protection, Article 8.1 of the Armenia Constitution as amended in 2005 "recognizes the exclusive historical mission of the Armenian Apostolic Holy Church as a national church", but also asserts the separation of church and state in Armenia. The same article also guarantees that: "Freedom of activities for all religious organizations in accordance with the law shall be guaranteed in the Republic of Armenia".

References:

Armenian Declaration of Independence: https://www.gov.am/en/independence/

"Constitution of the Republic of Armenia" (1995): http://www.parliament.am/legislation.php?sel=show&ID=2425&lang=eng

"Constitution of the Republic of Armenia (with the Amendments of 27 November 2005)": http://www.parliament.am/legislation.php?sel=show&ID=1&lang=eng
AustraliaFreedom of ReligionIn accordance with English Common Law, Australia’s Constitution does not clearly guarantee freedom of religion. However, Article 116 of the document orders the “Commonwealth not to legislate in respect of religion.” Additionally, multiple Australian states have adopted laws and constitutions protecting the right.

References:

“The Australian Constitution.” Parliament of Australia. Accessed July 19, 2023. https://www.aph.gov.au/constitution

“2021 Report on International Religious Freedom: Australia.” U.S. Department of State. Accessed July 19, 2023. https://www.state.gov/reports/2021-report-on-international-religious-freedom/australia/#:~:text=In%20Queensland%2C%20Victoria%2C%20and%20the,the%20grounds%20of%20religious%20belief.
AustriaFreedom of ReligionThe current Austrian state has maintained the Basic Law on the General Rights of Nationals of 1867, drafted during the Habsburg Empire. This makes Article 14 of the document the first assertion of freedom of religion in the country’s modern history. However, deeper legal foundations for this right can be found in the Patents of Tolerance of 1781/82.

The Constitution of Austria was ratified on October 1, 1920 and reinstated on May 1, 1945. Article 7 bans discrimination, including on the basis of religion.

References:

English original text of the Federal Constitutional Law of 1920 883 (2010), "First Principal Article: General Provisions ," Constitution of the Republic of Austria. - October 1, 1920 : 883-890

“Austria’s Religious Landscape.” Austria Embassy Washington. Accessed July 19, 2023. https://www.austria.org/religion#:~:text=EXPRESSIONS%20OF%20THE%20BASIC%20RIGHT%20OF%20RELIGIOUS%20FREEDOM&text=According%20to%20Austrian%20law%20(Law,choose%20his%20or%20her%20religion.
AzerbaijanFreedom of ReligionAzerbaijan’s Constitution of 1995 contains the first assertion of freedom of religion in the country’s post-Soviet history. In Article 18 all religion is declared equal under the law and Article 25, Article 48, Article 71(4) ban legal discrimination based on religion and grant religious protections. Articles 85 and 89 ban ministers of religion from holding power in the the Milli Majlis or Azerbaijan National Assembly.

References:

https://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/Azerbaijan%20Constitution.pdf

Blaustein, Albert P., and Gisbert H. Flanz. Constitutions of the Countries of the World; a Series of Updated Texts, Constitutional Chronologies and Annotated Bibliographies. "Azerbaijan Republic, Booklet 2, 1996" Permanent ed. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y: Oceana Publications, 1971.
BahrainFreedom of ReligionThe Bahrain Constitution of 1973 contains the first assertion of religious freedom in the country’s independent history. Article 22 articulates this right as follows: "Freedom of conscience is absolute. The State shall guarantee the inviolability of places of worship and the freedom to perform religious rites and to hold religious processions and meetings in accordance with the customs observed in the country." The 2002 Constitution also protects freedom of religion, Article 18 protects against discrimination based on religion. Article 22 protects freedom of religious thought, stating: "Freedom of conscience is absolute. The State guarantees the inviolability of worship, and the freedom to perform religious rites and hold religious parades and meetings in accordance with the customs observed in the country." It is noteworthy that Article 2 states Islam is the official religion and legislation is guided by Islamic Shari’a.

References:

“Bahrain Old Constitution (1973).” International Constitutional Law Project. Accessed July 20, 2023. https://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/ba01000_.html

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Bahrain_2017?lang=en
BangladeshFreedom of ReligionArticle 41 of the 1972 Bangladesh Constitution states that: "(1) Subject to law, public order and morality-

(a) every citizen has the right to profess, practice or propagate any religion; (b) every religious community or denomination has the right to establish, maintain and manage its religious institutions. (2) No person attending any educational institution shall be required to receive religious instruction, or to take part in or to attend any religious ceremony or worship, if that instruc- tion, ceremony or worship relates to a religion other than his own.."

References:

http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/research/bangladesh-constitution.pdf
BarbadosFreedom of ReligionBarbados’s Constitution of 1966 was the first document to protect freedom of religion in the country’s independent history. The preamble states the country was "founded upon principles that acknowledge the supremacy of God" among other principles. Article 19 grants religious freedoms and protections: "Except with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of conscience and for the purpose of this section the said freedom includes freedom of thought and of religion, freedom to change his religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others, and both in public and in private, to manifest and propagate his religion or belief in worship, teaching, practice and observance."

References:

https://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Barbados/barbados66.html
BelarusFreedom of ReligionThe Belarus Constitution of 1994 contains the first assertion of freedom of religion in the country’s post-Soviet history. Articles 14, 16, and 31 grant religious freedom and protections. Article 5 bans activities of political parties and public associations with the aim of religious hatred.

References:

https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzby0006&id=4&men_tab=srchresults

https://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/Belarus%20Constitution.pdf

https://www.venice.coe.int/webforms/documents/?pdf=CDL(2003)065-e
BelgiumFreedom of ReligionArticles 19, 20, and 21 of Belgium’s 1831 Constitution contain the first protections of freedom of religion in the country’s history. Article 24 requires compulsory education to not discriminate based on religion. However, Article 19 states that “offenses committed when this freedom is used may be punished.” “Belgium’s Constitution of 1831 with Amendments through 2014.” Constitute. Accessed July 20, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Belgium_2014.pdf?lang=en
BelizeFreedom of ReligionFreedom of religion was first guaranteed in Belize by its Constitution of 1981. Articles 3 and 11 protect religious freedom and equality. Preamble claims the supremacy of God. “Belize 1981 (rev. 2011).” Constitute. Accessed July 20, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Belize_2011
BeninFreedom of ReligionFreedom of religion was first specifically outlined in Article 135 of Benin’s 1977 Constitution. However, its predecessor, the Constitution of Dahomey (1965) did state that the country “guarantees the freedom of speech, press, assembly, association, procession and manifestation.” Under the 1990 Constitution of Benin, Articles 23 and 26 offer freedom of religion and prohibit religious discrimination under the law. Articles 2 and 5 define Benin as a secular state.

“Constitution of Dahomey.” World Constitutions Illustrated, Heinlonline. Accessed July 20, 2023. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.cow/zzbj0002&i=1

“Fundamental Law of the People’s Republic of Benin.” World Constitutions Illustrated, Heinlonline. Accessed July 20, 2023. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.cow/zzbj0035&i=3

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Benin_1990.pdf?lang=en
BhutanFreedom of ReligionAccording to Article 7.4 of the 2008 Constitution of the Kingdom of Bhutan, "A Bhutanese citizen shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. No person shall be compelled to belong to another faith by means of coercion or inducement."

References:

2008 Constitution of the Kingdom of Bhutan: "Article 7: Fundamental Rights," Constitution of the Kingdom of Bhutan, 2008, 14: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzbt0002&id=22&men_tab=srchresults
BoliviaFreedom of ReligionFreedom of conscience is recognized in Title II of Bolivia’s 1826 Constitution, which also states that the country’s religion is Catholicism. However, the Constitution has since gone through 16 iterations, with the most current adopted in 2009. Articles 4, 14, 21, 86, and 104 of the 2009 Constitution protect religious freedom and prohibit religious discrimination. Article 4 says that Bolivia is a secular state.

“Bolivia (Plurinational Republic of) 2009.” Constitute. Accessed July 20, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Bolivia_2009

“Constitution of the Bolivian Republic.” World Constitutions Illustrated, Heinlonline. Accessed July 20, 2023. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.cow/zzbo0003&i=1
Bosnia and HerzegovinaFreedom of ReligionThe Bosnian and Herzegovinian Constitution of 1995 contains the first assertion of freedom of religion in the country’s independent history. Articles 1.7(b), 2.3(g), and 2.4 protect religious freedoms and equality and prohibit religious discrimination.


“Bosnia and Herzegovina 1995 (rev. 2009).” Constitute. Accessed July 20, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Bosnia_Herzegovina_2009
BotswanaFreedom of ReligionBotswana’s Constitution of 1966 is the first document in the country’s independent history to protect freedom of conscience. Article 3(b) outlines this right. Article 11 establishes religious freedom, equality, and prohibits religious discrimination. “Botswana 1966 (rev. 2016).” Constitute. Accessed July 20, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Botswana_2016
BrazilFreedom of ReligionAccording to Article 179.5 of the 1824 Political Constitution of the Empire of Brazil, "No one may be persecuted by reason of religion, so long as he respects that of the state and does not offend public morals."

The 1890 Constitution guaranteed free exercise: "All individuals and religious denominations may publicly and freely exercise their worship, associating themselves for this purpose, and acquiring property within the limits prescribed by the law of mortmain." In a number of ways the 1890 Constitution asserted separation of church and state, including emphasis on the secular character of public instruction and cemeteries, the civil character of marriage recognized by the state, and a ban on official subsidies or other relationships between religious groups and federal or state governments. The 22 June 1890 Constitution also barred Jesuits from Brazil, though as Thomas Skidmore describes this ban was lifted before the Constitution came into effect: "The initial draft of the Constitution of 1891, for example, contained a clause which would have again banned the order from Brazil. The provision was removed by the Constituent Assembly, which nonetheless endorsed a proposed prohibition of any new convents or monastic orders."

The final version of the 1891 Constitution offered a briefer description of freedom of religion in Article 179, Section V: "No one can be persecuted on account of his religion so long as he respects that of the state and does not offend public morals." Even so, the 1891 Constitution established an official religion in Article 5: "The Apostolic Roman Catholic religion shall continue to be the religion of the Empire. All other religions shall be permitted with their domestic or private worship in buildings destined therefor, but without any exterior form of a temple."

References:

"Title VIII: General Provisions and Guarantees of the Civil and Political Rights of Brazilian Citizens," Constitution of the Empire of Brazil, 1824 : 250: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzbr0040&id=14&men_tab=srchresults

English translation of the Portuguese original text of the Constitution of 22 June 1890 23 (2013) Section II: Declaration of Rights : https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.cow/zzbr0396&id=23&collection=cow&index=

English translation of the original Constitution of 1891. [8] (2013) Title II: Of Brazilian Citizens; Title VIII: Of the General Dispositions and Guarantees of the Civil and Political Rights of Brazilian Citizens, Constitution of the Empire of Brazil (1891): [8]; [29]: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzbr0153&id=30&men_tab=srchresults#

Skidmore, Thomas E. “Eduardo Prado: A Conservative Nationalist Critic of the Early Brazilian Republic, 1889-1901.” Luso-Brazilian Review 12, no. 2 (1975): 154. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3512939.
BruneiFreedom of ReligionThe Constitution of Brunei Declares the Shafi’i school of Sunni Islam (Shafeite sect) the Official religion of the country, Part IX 84.1 states that all no person shall be appointed to any office not professing the Islamic religion. However, Part II, Article 3, Section 1 states, “all other religions may be practiced in peace and harmony by the persons professing them.” This Assertion is first seen in the 1959 Constitution of Brunei Darussalam.

CIA World Factbook. Brunei. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/brunei/#government

U.S. Department of State 2022 Report on International Religious Freedom: Brunei https://www.state.gov/reports/2022-report-on-international-religious-freedom/brunei

International Commission of Jurists. Constitution of Brunei Darussalam 1959. https://www.icj.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Brunei-Constitution-1959-eng.pdf
BulgariaFreedom of ReligionThe Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria was ratified on 12 July 1991. Articles 6.2, 11.4, 13, 37, and 44.2 grant religious protections and freedoms. https://www.parliament.bg/en/const
Burkina FasoFreedom of ReligionUnder Chapter I, Article 7, Freedom of Religion is asserted in the 1991 Constitution of Burkina Faso. This article also specifies that respect for the law, public order, good morals, and the human person must be upheld with free practice. Equality regardless of religion is also guaranteed under Article I. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Constitution of Burkina Faso. 1991. https://faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/bkf128139E.pdf
BurundiFreedom of ReligionThe first assertion of freedom of religion was in the 1962 Constitution of the Kingdom of Burundi. Burundi became independent in 1962 from the Belgium administration. Article 13, under Title II, covers freedom of worship. Constitution of Burundi. 1962. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a5/Constitution_du_Burundi_de_1962.pdf
CambodiaFreedom of ReligionThe 1947 Constitution of Cambodia declares Buddhism as the religion of the state. However, It asserts under Article 8 that, “Liberty of conscience is absolute. So is that of worshiping…” but limits this liberty of worship by articulating that it “suffers no other restrictions than those made necessary by the maintenance of Public order.” Articles 31 and 43 of the 1993 Constitution grant religious equality under the law and religious freedom of worship, respectively. Article 43 of the 1993 Constitution declares Buddhism the national religion and Article 68 promotes Buddhist institutions.

Advocatanomy Law Library. Cambodia Constitution 1947. https://advocatetanmoy.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/06/cambodia-constitution-1947.pdf

CIA World Factbook. Cambodia. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/cambodia/#government
CameroonFreedom of ReligionThe 1972 constitution of Cameroon first asserts that Freedom of religion and worship shall be guaranteed in Article 15 of the preamble. In Article 14 the state is declared secular and neutral, also opening the preamble with adherence to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. While not specifically mentioned in the 1961 Constitution, it also affirms adherence to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which covers religious freedom under Article 18.

https://condor.depaul.edu/mdelance/images/Pdfs/Federal%20Constitution%20of%20Cameroon.pdf

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Cameroon_2008?lang=en
CanadaFreedom of ReligionThe Constitution of Canada was ratified on July 1, 1867. Part I B(2) and F(15) grant religious freedoms and protections. Part I pretext claims the supremacy of God. Constitution Project. “Canada 1867 (Rev. 2011) Constitution.” Constitute, POGO, 27 Apr. 2022, https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Canada_2011?lang=en.
Cape VerdeFreedom of ReligionFreedom of religion is first asserted in the 1980 Constitution of the Republic of Cabo Verde. Articles 42.1, 44.1, 45.1, 47.2-3, and 48 grant religious freedoms and prohibit religious discrimination. This constitution guarantees freedom from religious discrimination, separation of church and state, freedom of religious instruction, guaranteed religious presence in hospitals, prisons, and armed forces, and the protection of religious places of worship. Constitute Project. Constitution of the Republic of Cabo Verde. 1980. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Cape_Verde_1992
Central African RepublicFreedom of ReligionThe Constitution of the Central African Republic was ratified on March 27, 2016. Articles 6 and 10 grant religious freedom, equality, and protections from discrimination. Article 25 declares separation of church and state. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Central_African_Republic_2016.pdf?lang=en
ChadFreedom of ReligionThe first assertion of Religious Freedom is covered under the 1996 Constitution of The Republic of Chad, under Title II, Chapter I, Article 27. Article 14 of Title II also guarantees equality without distinction of origin, of race, of sex, of religion, of political opinion or of social position.

Constituteproject. Constitution of the Republic of Chad. 1996. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Chad_2005

U.S. Department of State. Report on International Religious Freedom. https://www.state.gov/reports/2022-report-on-international-religious-freedom/chad/#:~:text=The%20October%20Transitional%20Charter%20establishes,and%20secularism%20of%20the%20state.”
ChileFreedom of ReligionFreedom of Religion was first covered in the 1925 Constitution of The Republic of Chile under Chapter III, Article 10, Section 2. However, the specification that religion may not be contrary to morality, good usage, and public order, is made in the same assertion.

Constitute Project. 1925 Constitution of the Republic of Chile. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Chile_1925?lang=en

CIA World Factbook. Chile. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/chile/#government
ChinaFreedom of ReligionThe Constitution establishes freedom of religion, but limits it to "normal religious activity" without defining normal. Religious groups are controlled if they are perceived to be a threat by the Communist Party. In recent years, there has been a campaign of religious persecution of the Uighurs in the Xinjiang province (U.S. Department of State, "CHINA (INCLUDES TIBET, XINJIANG, HONG KONG, AND MACAU) 2018 INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM REPORT").
ColombiaFreedom of ReligionArticle 19 of the 1991 Constitution stated: "Freedom of religion is guaranteed. Every individual has the right to freely profess his/her religion and to disseminate it individually or collectively. All religious faiths and churches are equally free before the law."
ComorosFreedom of ReligionReligious Freedom is not guaranteed in Comoros. The Constitution declares Sunni Islam the religion of the state under Chapter V, Article 97 under the current constitution. However, Under Title I, Chapter I, Article 2, equality before the law is guaranteed regardless of religion.

U.S. Department of State. Report on International Religious Freedom. 2021. Comoros. https://www.state.gov/reports/2021-report-on-international-religious-freedom/comoros/

Constitute Project. 2018 Constitution of Comoros. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Comoros_2018
Costa RicaFreedom of ReligionThe Constitution of Costa Rica was ratified on 1949 November 7. Article 75 both declares the Roman Catholic Church as the official religion of Costa Rica and grants freedom of religion. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Costa_Rica_2011.pdf
CroatiaFreedom of ReligionUnder Title III, Section II, Article 40, Freedom of religion is first asserted in the 1991 Constitution of The Republic of Croatia. Equality regardless of religion is also guaranteed under Article 14. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Croatia's Constitution of 1991 with Amendments through 2001. https://faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/cro129771.pdf
CubaFreedom of ReligionArticle 26 of the 1901 Constitution of Cuba, adopted in 1902, asserted separation of church from state and freedom of religious practice, "without further restriction than that demanded by the respect for Christian morality and public order."

The Constitution of Cuba was ratified on 24 February 2019. Articles 15, 42, and 57 grant religious freedoms, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination. Articles 15 and 32.b declare Cuba a secular state.

References:

1901/1902 Constitution: English translation of the Spanish original text of the Constitution of 1901/2. 155 (2010) Section I: Individual Rights: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzcu0004&id=4&men_tab=srchresults

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Cuba_2019.pdf?lang=en
CyprusFreedom of ReligionUnder part II, Article 18, Freedom of Religion was first asserted in the 1960 Constitution of Cyprus. This Constitution was adopted upon independence from the UK in the same year.


International Labour Organization. Constitution of Cyprus 1960. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/47927/136251/F-1750868360/CYP47927_LEG_Constitution%201960.pdf

CIA World Factbook. Cyprus. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/cyprus/
Czech RepublicFreedom of ReligionThe first assertion of freedom of religion within the Czech Republic was asserted in the 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia under Chapter II, Article 32. However, In the 1992 Constitution of the Czech Republic, freedom of religion is not mentioned. Instead, there is a supplemental document, The Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms, under the Constitutional Order of 1992 that covers religious freedom under Article 15.


International Labour Organization. Constitution of the Czech Republic https://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/docs/1967/Constitution%20of%20the%20Czech%20Republic.pdf

World Statesman. Constitution of Czechoslovakia. 1960. https://www.worldstatesmen.org/Czechoslovakia-Const1960.pdf

CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS. https://www.usoud.cz/fileadmin/user_upload/ustavni_soud_www/Pravni_uprava/AJ/Listina_English_version.pdf
Democratic Republic of the CongoFreedom of ReligionUnder Title II, Article 24, Freedom of religion is affirmed in the 1964 Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. However, It does state that worship, teaching, practices, and performance of worship should be subject to the respect of public order and good morals. The current Constitution was ratified on February 18, 2006. Articles 13, 22, 45, and 61.7 grant religious protections and freedoms. It also declares the Democratic Republic of the Congo as a secular state.

U.S. Department of State. Report on Religious Freedom. 2022. Democratic Republic of The Congo. https://www.state.gov/reports/2022-report-on-international-religious-freedom/democratic-republic-of-the-congo/

Wikisource. Translated 1964 Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Translation:Constitution_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo_(1964)#Title_II._Fundamental_rights

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo_2011.pdf?lang=en
DenmarkFreedom of ReligionAs early as 1849, elements of the right to religious freedom were asserted in the Fundamental Law of the Kingdom of Denmark. According to Article 76 of the 1866 revised version of the 1849 Fundamental Law, "Citizens shall have the right to organize themselves into societies for the worship of God according to their convictions, provided that their doctrines and conduct do not violate good morals or public order." Article 79 of the 1866 revision held that there could be no religious test for enjoyment of civil rights, or relief from civil obligations by reason of religion. Articles 75 and 78 of the 1866 revision described the legal regulation of the national church and of other churches.

Article 77 of the 1866 revision required that those unable to show membership in a denomination recognized by the government "shall pay into the educational funds the personal taxes authorized by law for the use of the national church." The 1953 Constitutional Act of Denmark addresses religious liberty in Sections 66-70, and in Section 68 asserts: "No one shall be liable to make personal contributions to any denomination other than the one to which he adheres."

References:

1849 Fundamental Law of the Kingdom of Denmark: French translation of the Fundamental Law of 1849 1218 (2010) Fundamental Law of the Kingdom of Denmark: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.cow/zzdk0006&collection=cow

Fundamental Law of the Kingdom of Denmark [Revising the Fundamental Law of 1849], 1866: English translation of the Fundamental Law of 1866, revising that of 1849. 278 (2010), VIII: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.cow/zzdk0009&id=12&collection=cow&index=

1953 Constitutional Act of Denmark: https://www.thedanishparliament.dk/-/media/sites/ft/pdf/publikationer/engelske-publikationer-pdf/the_constitutional_act_of_denmark_2018_uk_web.pdf
DjiboutiFreedom of ReligionDjibouti’s constitution, adopted in 1992, affirms Islam as the state’s religion, though it respects all faiths and protects freedom of religion. The right is guaranteed under Article 11 (Djibouti 1992). Djibouti. 1992 "Djibouti 1992 (rev. 2010)" Constitute Project. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Djibouti_2010
DominicaFreedom of ReligionAfter its independence from the United Kingdom in 1979, the Commonwealth of Dominica adopted its Constitution, which had been written the year prior. Article 9 deals with “Protection of conscience” and protects freedom of religion (Dominica 1978).

Dominica. 1978 “Dominica 1978 (rev. 2014)” Constitute Project

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Dominica_2014
Dominican RepublicFreedom of ReligionArticle 11, Section 18 of the 1887 Constitution of the Dominican Republic offered religious toleration, observing that Roman Catholicism was the official religion, but allowing that "Other sects may hold their services freely in their respective houses of worship."

References:

English translation of the Constitution of 1887. 757 (2010) Chapter III: National Guarantees:https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzdo0006&id=3&men_tab=srchresults
East TimorFreedom of ReligionCreated and ratified in 2002 after the country gained independence from Indonesia, the Constitution of East Timor guarantees its citizens freedom of religion. Two sections grant this right: Sections 1 and 2 under Article 12 and Sections 1 through 4 under Article 45 (Timor-Leste 2002).

Timor-Leste. 2002 “Timor-Leste 2002” Constitute Project

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/East_Timor_2002
EcuadorFreedom of ReligionThe first liberal constitution of Ecuador was adopted in 1897, establishing and protecting freedom of religion in the country for the first time. Article 13 under Section IV states that the state respects all religions and their practice (“Constitución de 1897” 1897). Under the 2008 Constitution, Articles 11.2, 19, 66.8, 66.11, and 66.28 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination., and Article 1 declares Ecuador a secular state.

“Constitución de 1897” 1897. Consitutenet.org https://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/1897.pdf

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Ecuador_2021?lang=en
EgyptFreedom of ReligionThe Royal Decree No. 42 of 1923 On Building a Constitutional System for the Egyptian State guarantees Egyptian citizens equal civil and political rights, regardless of religion, stated in Article 3 (“Royal Decree No. 42 of 1923” 1923). However, it was the Constitution of 1956 that made freedom of belief absolute in the constitution’s bill of rights (“The New Egyptian Constitution” 1956). Under the 2014 Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt, Articles 53 and 64 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination, and Article 2 declares Islam Egypt’s official religion and Sharia a guiding principle of legislation.

The New Egyptian Constitution. (1956). Middle East Journal, 10(3), 300–306. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4322826 “Royal Decree No. 42 of 1923” 1923. Constitutenet.org https://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/1923_-_egyptian_constitution_english_1.pdf

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Egypt_2019?lang=en
El SalvadorFreedom of ReligionThe Constitution of 1886, more liberal than the previous constitutions of El Salvador, guaranteed freedom of religion to all citizens. This is found under Article 12 under Section II of the constitution (“Constitucion de 1886” 1886. 2). Under the 1983 Constitution of El Salvador, Articles 3, 6, 25 and 58 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination, and Article 26 recognizes the Catholic Church.

“Constitucion de 1886” 1886. Jurisprudencia https://www.jurisprudencia.gob.sv/DocumentosBoveda/D/2/1880-1889/1886/08/886EC.PDF

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/El_Salvador_2014.pdf?lang=en
Equatorial GuineaFreedom of ReligionThe Constitution of 1973 of Equatorial Guinea addresses freedom of religion and belief in Article 35. Though it states that citizens can practice religion within the confines of the law, they are not allowed to use faith or religious beliefs to oppose the principles and purposes of the State (“Constitucion de 1973” 1973). Under the 1991 Constitution of the Republic of Equatorial Guinea, Articles 13(f), Article 15.1, and 24.3-4 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination.

“Constitucion de 1973” 1973. Guinea Ecuatorial

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Equatorial_Guinea_2012.pdf?lang=en
EritreaFreedom of ReligionThe earliest document that assures freedom of religion in Eritrea is Proclamation No. 73/1995 of 1995. It “calls for separation of religion and state; outlines the parameters to which religious organizations must adhere, including concerning foreign relations and social activities; establishes an Office of Religious Affairs; and requires religious groups to register with the government or cease activities” (U.S. Department of State 2019. 3). Though freedom of religion is present in the draft constitution of Eritrea, it has not been ratified since its introduction in 1997.

U.S. Department of State 2019. “ERITREA 2019 INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM REPORT”

https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/ERITREA-2019-INTERNATIONAL-
EstoniaFreedom of ReligionThe first constitution of Estonia, created in 1920, grants Estonian citizens the right to freedom of religion. Paragraph 6 and 11 states that there is freedom of “religion and conscience” and their practice will not be hindered, “provided it does not interfere with public orders and morals” (“Constitution of the Esthonian Republic” 1920). Under the 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Estonia, Articles 12, 40, and 124 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination.

“Constitution of the Esthonian Republic” 1920. Estonian Republic

https://www.riigiteataja.ee/en/eli/521052015001/consolide
EswatiniFreedom of ReligionEswatini’s current constitution, created and adopted in 2005, protects the right to freedom of religion for the citizens of the country. Article 23 deals with the protection of freedom of conscience and religion, with Sections 1, 2, 3, and 4 ensuring the freedom (Eswatini 2005).

Eswatini 2005. “Eswatini 2005” Constitute Project

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Swaziland_2005
EthiopiaFreedom of ReligionThe 1955 Constitution of Ethiopia ensures the right to freedom of worship to its citizens in Article 40. The section states that “there shall be no interference with the exercise, in accordance with the law, of the rites of any religion or creed by residents of the Empire, provided that such rites are not utilized for political purposes or prejudicial to public order or morality” (“1955 Revised Constitution of Ethiopia” 1955). However, it is the 1994 Constitution that explicitly states that citizens in Ethiopia have the full legal right to freedom of religion (Ethiopia 1994). Articles 11, 21, 25, 27, and 38 of the 1994 Constitution grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination, and Article 11 declares a separation of church and state.

Ethiopia 1994. “Ethiopia 1994” Constitutenet.org https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Ethiopia_1994

“1955 Revised Constitution of Ethiopia” 1955. Chilot.me

https://chilot.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/1955-revised-constitution-of-ethiopia1.pdf
Federated States of MicronesiaFreedom of ReligionThe Micronesian Constitution of 1978 was the first document to protect freedom of religion in the country’s independent history. Article 4 Section 2 grant religious freedom and equality. Article 4 Section 2 bans declaration of an official religion or laws in regard to religion. Micronesian Constitutional Convention in 1975. “CONSTITUTION OF THE FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIA.” Legal Information System of the Federated States of Micronesia . Government of the Federated States of Micronesia , 2005. Last modified 2005. Accessed June 21, 2022. http://www.fsmlaw.org/fsm/constitution/.
FijiFreedom of ReligionSince the country’s independence in 1970, freedom of religion has been protected in Fiji. The Fiji Independence Order of 1970 and the 1970 Constitution of Fiji guarantee the right under section 11 (“Fiji Independence Order 1970 and Constitution of Fiji” 1970). Under the 2013 Constitution of the Republic of Fiji, Articles 4, 17, 22, and 26 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination.

“Fiji Independence Order 1970 and Constitution of Fiji” 1970. Constitutenet.org https://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/1970_constitution.pdf

https://www.laws.gov.fj/Home/information/constitutionoftherepublicoffiji#:~:text=The%20Constitution%20of%20the%20Republic,the%20procedures%20in%20the%20Constitution.
FinlandFreedom of ReligionThe Finnish Constitution Act of 1919 stipulated that “a Finnish citizen has the right to practice religion publicly and privately, provided that the law and good practices are not violated, as well as, as separately provided thereon, the freedom to renounce the religious community to which he belongs and the freedom to join another religious community.” This assurance is found under Section 8 and applies to all citizens of Finland (“Constitution Act” 1919). Under the 2000 Constitution of Finland sections 6 and 11 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination.

“Constitution Act” 1919 Finland

https://oikeusministerio.fi/en/constitution-of-finland
FranceFreedom of ReligionThe earliest documentation of freedom of religion in France is the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in 1798 (Britannica, "Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen," Article 10). The Law of Secularism, passed in 1905, establishes the separation of church and state, but favors traditionally "French" religions such as Catholicism, at the expense of others, like Islam (U.S. Department of State, "FRANCE 2018 INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM REPORT").
GabonFreedom of ReligionGabon’s Constitution of November 14, 1960, granted its citizens the right to freedom of religion in its texts. The second point of the First Article establishes freedom of religion and conscience to all (“Constitution du 14 novembre 1960” 1960).Under the 1991 Constitution of Gabon, Articles 1.2, 1.13, and 2 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibits religious discrimination, and Article 2 declares Gabon a secular state.

“Constitution du 14 novembre 1960” 1960. Digithèque MJP https://mjp.univ-perp.fr/constit/ga1960.htm

Constitution Project. “Gabon's Constitution of 1991 with Amendments through 2011.” Constitute. POGO, April 27, 2022. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Gabon_2011.pdf?lang=en&lang=en.
GeorgiaFreedom of ReligionBefore falling under the influence of the Soviet Union and becoming a soviet socialist republic, the short-lived, first modern establishment of the republic of Georgia (The Democratic Republic of Georgia) adopted a constitution that only lasted four days. This constitution, ratified in 1921, granted its citizens the right to freedom of religion under Article 31 (“Constitution of Georgia, 1921” 1921). After Georgia gained independence from the Soviet Union, the country adopted a new constitution in 1995. Articles 11.1, 11.2, 16.1, and 16.3 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination. Article 8 recognized the Orthodox Church of Georgia, but not declare it the national religion outright.

“Constitution of Georgia, 1921” 1921 მატიანე https://matiane.wordpress.com/2012/09/04/constitution-of-georgia-1921/ Georgia 1995 “Georgia 1995 (rev. 2018)” Constitute Project https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Georgia_2018

State Constitutional Commission of Georgia. “Constitution of Georgia.” Legislative Herald of Georgia. Departments of the Parliament of Georgia, August 24, 1995. https://matsne.gov.ge/en/document/view/30346?publication=36.
GermanyFreedom of ReligionArticle 18 of the 1818 Baden Constitution states: "Every resident of the country shall enjoy unhindered freedom of conscience and the same protection shall be provided in consideration for the way in which he worships God."

Article 5 of the "Law Concerning the Basic Rights of the German People," from 27 December 1848, asserted religious freedom.

Articles 135-137 of the 11 August 1919 Constitution of the German Reich (The Weimar Constitution) guarantee religious freedom. Article 135 guarantees free exercise, Article 136 denies the legality of linkage between religious belief or practice and civil or political rights, and Article 137 asserts the lack of a state church.

References:

1818 Baden Constitution: https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Baden_1818

"IV. Fundamental Rights of the German People voted in by the National Assembly in Frankfurt.," IV. Droits Fondementaux du Peuple Allemand votes par l'Assemblee Nationale de Francfort. (1848): 211-212: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.cow/zzde0172&id=1&collection=cow&index=

The Constitution of the German Reich / August 11, 1919 / Translation of Document 2050-PS / Office of U.S. Chief of Counsel. Courtesy of Cornell University Law Library, Donovan Nuremberg Trials Collection.

https://digital.library.cornell.edu/catalog/nur01840
GhanaFreedom of ReligionThe Constitution of Ghana was ratified 28 April 1992. Articles 12.2, 17.2, 17.3, 21.1(c), and 26.1 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination. Article 21 Section 1.c states that “[a]ll persons shall have the right to… freedom to practice any religion and to manifest such practice…”.

Parliament of Ghana. “The Constitution of the Republic of Ghana 1992.” Judicial Service of Ghana. Republic of Ghana Judiciary , 1992. Last modified 1992. Accessed June 14, 2022. https://www.judicial.gov.gh/index.php/preamble.

“Ghana 1992 (Rev. 1996) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 21, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Ghana_1996.
GreeceFreedom of ReligionThe Constitution of Greece was ratified 11 June 1975. Part 1 Section II Article 3.1-2 of Greece’s constitution establishes “[t]he prevailing religion in Greece is that of the Eastern Orthodox Church of Christ…” and that “the ecclesiastical regime existing in certain districts of the State shall not be deemed contrary to the provisions of the preceding paragraph” (constituteproject.org). Articles 5.2 and 13 protect religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination. Part 2 Article 13.1-2 states that “Freedom of religious conscience is inviolable. The enjoyment of civil rights and liberties does not depend on the individual's religious beliefs. All known religions shall be free and their rites of worship shall be performed unhindered and under the protection of the law. The practice of rites of worship is not allowed to offend public order or the good usages. Proselytism is prohibited” (constituteproject.org).

“Greece 1975 (Rev. 2008) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 21, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Greece_2008.

Hellenic Parliament. “001-156 Syntagma UK New - Hellenic Parliament.” Hellenic Parliament. Hellenic Parliament, 2008. Last modified 2008. Accessed June 14, 2022. https://www.hellenicparliament.gr/UserFiles/f3c70a23-7696-49db-9148-f24dce6a27c8/001-156%20aggliko.pdf.
GrenadaFreedom of ReligionThe Grenada Constitution of 1973 was ratified on 19th of December 1973. It grants religious freedom, equality, and prohibits religious discrimination. The preamble acknowledges the supremacy of God. Chapter I Article 9.1-6 states “[e]xcept with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of conscience, including freedom of thought and of religion, freedom to change his religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others, and both in public and in private, to manifest and propagate his religion or belief in worship, teaching, practice and observance” (constituteproject.org).

“Grenada 1973 (Reinst. 1991, Rev. 1992) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 21, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Grenada_1992.

Government of Grenada . “The Grenada Constitution.” Government of Grenada. Government of Grenada , 1973. Last modified 1973. Accessed June 14, 2022. http://gov.gd/index.php/government/the-constitution.
GuatemalaFreedom of ReligionThe Constitution of the Republic of Guatemala was ratified 31 May 1985. Articles 19(c), 33, 36, 37 and 73 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination. Freedom of religion is protected under Article 36 of the Guatemala constitution: “The exercise of all the religions is free. Any person has the right to practice his [or her] religion or belief, in public and in private, through teaching, cult and observance, without other limits than the public order and the due respect for the dignity of the hierarchy and the faithful [followers] of [the] other beliefs [credos]” (constituteproject.org). “Guatemala 1985 (Rev. 1993) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 21, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Guatemala_1993.
GuineaFreedom of ReligionThe Constitution of the Republic of Guinea was ratified on May 7, 2010. Articles 1, 4, 7, 8, 11, and 14 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination. Article 1 declares Guinea a secular state. Article 14 of Guinea’s constitution establishes that “the free exercise of worship [culte] is guaranteed, under reserve of the respect for the law and the public order. The religious institutions and communities are created and administered freely” (constituteproject.org). “Guinea 2010 Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 21, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Guinea_2010.
Guinea-BissauFreedom of ReligionThe Constitution of Guinea-Bissau was ratified on 6 May 1984. Articles 6.2, 24, 31.2, and 52 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination. Articles 1 and 130 declares Guinea-Bissau a secular state; and Article 6.1 declares a separation between church and state. Article 52 Sections 1-3 of the constitution establishes that “1. Freedom of conscience and of religion is inviolable. 2. All are assured the liberty of worship, which in no manner may violate the fundamental principles established by this Constitution. 3. The freedom to teach any religion under its denomination is guaranteed” (constituteproject.org). “Guinea-Bissau 1984 (Rev. 1996) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 21, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Guinea_Bissau_1996.
GuyanaFreedom of ReligionThe Constitution of the Co-operative Republic of Guyana Act was ratified 20th February, 1980. Articles 38(f), 145.2, and 145.3 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination. Articles 212B(a) and 212D(f) establish an Ethnic Relations Commission to protect religious diversity. Article 145 Sections 1-6. Section 1 states that “[e]xcept with his or her own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his or her freedom of conscience, and for the purposes of this article the said freedom includes freedom of thought and of religion, freedom to change his or her religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others, and both in public and in private, to manifest and propagate his or her religion or belief in worship, teaching, practice and observance” (constituteproject.org).

Parliament of Guyana. “Constitution of the Co-Operative Republic of Guyana Act .” Parliament Government of Guyana. National Assembly of the Parliament of Guyana, January 2012. Last modified January 2012. Accessed June 14, 2022. https://parliament.gov.gy/Constitution%20of%20the%20Cooperatiive%20Republic%20of%20Guyana.pdf.

“Guyana 1980 (Rev. 2016) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 21, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Guyana_2016.
HaitiFreedom of ReligionIn the 1987 Constitution of Haiti, Articles 30, 30-1, and 30-2 grant religious freedoms. Section D Article 30 of the Haitian constitution states that “[a]ll religions and faiths shall be freely exercised. Everyone is entitled to profess his religion and practice his faith, provided the exercise of that right does not disturb law and order” (constituteproject.org).

"Constitution for the Republic of Haiti, 1987": https://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/text/217597

“Haiti 1987 (Rev. 2012) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 21, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Haiti_2012.
HondurasFreedom of ReligionThe Political Constitution of the Republic of Honduras was ratified on 11 January 1982. Articles 77 grants freedom of religion. Articles 60 and 61 bans all forms of discrimination and grants equality for all. The constitution of Honduras protects freedom of religion under Article 77 which states: “The free exercise of all religions and cults is guaranteed without preference to one, provided they do not violate the law and public order. Ministers of the various religions may not hold public office or engage in any form of political propaganda, invoking religious motives or, as a means to such end, thus taking advantage of the religious beliefs of the people” (constituteproject.org). “Honduras 1982 (Rev. 2013) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 21, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Honduras_2013.
HungaryFreedom of ReligionThe Fundamental Law of Hungary was ratified 18 on April 2011. The preamble distinguishes Christianity’s role in preserving nationhood. Articles 7, 9.5, 14.3, 15.2, and 37.4 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination. Article 7 states that “[e]veryone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right shall include the freedom to choose or change one's religion or other belief, and the freedom of everyone to manifest, abstain from manifesting, practise or teach his or her religion or other belief through religious acts, rites or otherwise, either individually or jointly with others, either in public or in private life” (constituteproject.org).

“Hungary 2011 (Rev. 2016) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 21, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Hungary_2016.

Ministry of Justice 2017. “The Fundamental Law of Hungary.” Website of the Hungarian Government. National Assembly of Hungary , May 19, 2017. Last modified May 19, 2017. Accessed June 14, 2022. https://2015-2019.kormany.hu/download/a/68/11000/The_Fundamental_Law_of_Hungary_01072016.pdf.
IcelandFreedom of ReligionThe Constitution of the Republic of Iceland was ratified on June 17, 1944. Article 62 establishes that “the Evangelical Lutheran Church shall be the State Church in Iceland and, as such, it shall be supported and protected by the State. This may be amended by law.” Articles 63, 64, and 65 grant religious freedom and equality. Article 63 states that “all persons have the right to form religious associations and to practice their religion in conformity with their individual convictions. Nothing may however be preached or practised which is prejudicial to good morals or public order” (constituteproject.org).

“Iceland 1944 (Rev. 2013) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 21, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Iceland_2013.

National Parliament of Iceland. “Constitution of the Republic of Iceland.” Government of Iceland. Prime Minister's Office , June 24, 1999. Last modified June 24, 1999. Accessed June 14, 2022. https://www.government.is/library/01-Ministries/Prime-Ministrers-Office/constitution_of_iceland.pdf.
IndiaFreedom of ReligionThe Constitution of India was ratified on November 29, 1949. Articles 15, 16.2, 23.2, 25, 26, 27, 29.2, 30, and 325 grant religious Freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination. Article 371 grants special religious protections throughout various states and religions of India.

Article 25 Section 1 states that “[s]ubject to public order, morality and health and to the other provisions of this Part, all persons are equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess, practise and propagate religion” (constituteproject.org). According to the US Department of State in 2021, “ten of 28 states have laws restricting religious conversions. Four state governments have laws imposing penalties against so-called forced religious conversions for the purpose of marriage…” (state.gov).

Constituent Assembly. “The Constitution of India.” Government of India. Department of Legislation , November 26, 2021. Last modified November 26, 2021. Accessed June 14, 2022. https://legislative.gov.in/sites/default/files/COI...pdf.

“India - United States Department of State.” U.S. Department of State, June 10, 2022. https://www.state.gov/reports/2021-report-on-international-religious-freedom/india/.

“India 1949 (Rev. 2016) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 21, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/India_2016.
IndonesiaFreedom of ReligionThe Indonesia Constitution was ratified on August 18, 1945. Articles 28E, 28I, and 29.2 grant religious freedom; articles 28B and 28I prohibit any basis of discrimination. The preamble and article 29.1 states that the state of Indonesian is based on the One and Only God. Article 29 Section 2 states: "The State guarantees all persons the freedom of worship, each according to his/her own religion or belief." (constituteproject.org).

According to the US Department of State in 2021, “The constitution states citizens must accept restrictions established by law to protect the rights of others and to satisfy, as noted in the constitution, ‘just demands based upon considerations of morality, religious values, security, and public order in a democratic society.’”

“Indonesia - United States Department of State.” U.S. Department of State, June 2, 2022. https://www.state.gov/reports/2021-report-on-international-religious-freedom/indonesia/.

“Indonesia 1945 (Reinst. 1959, Rev. 2002) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 21, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Indonesia_2002.
IranFreedom of ReligionThe Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran was ratified on December 3, 1979. Articles 12 and 13 establish religious freedoms and restrictions in Iran. Article 12 states that “the official religion of Iran is Islam and the Twelver Ja'farî school [in usul al-Dîn and fiqh], and this principle will remain eternally immutable… These schools enjoy official status in matters pertaining to… affairs of personal status (marriage, divorce, inheritance, and wills) and related litigation in courts of law” while Article 13 provides for freedom of other religious minorities “Zoroastrian, Jewish, and Christian Iranians are the only recognized religious minorities, who, within the limits of the law, are free to perform their religious rites and ceremonies, and to act according to their own canon in matters of personal affairs and religious education” (constituteproject.org).

References:

“Iran (Islamic Republic of) 1979 (Rev. 1989) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 21, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Iran_1989.

Ramazani, Rouhollah K. “Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran.” Middle East Journal 34, no. 2 (1980): 181–204. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4326018.
IraqFreedom of ReligionArticle 13 of the 1925 Iraq Constitution stated: "Islam is the official religion of the State. Freedom to practise the rites; of the different sects of that religion, as observed in Iraq, is guaranteed. Complete freedom of conscience and freedom to practise the various forms of worship, in conformity with accepted customs, is guaranteed to all inhabitants of the country provided that such forms of worship do not conflict with the maintenance of order and discipline or public morality."

The Constitution of the Republic of Iraq was ratified on September 18, 2005. Article 2.1 declares Islam the official religion of Iraq and foundation source of legislation: “Islam is the official religion of the State and is a foundation source of legislation. No law may be enacted that contradicts the established provisions of Islam…” Articles 2.2, 10, 14, 37.2, 41, and 43 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination. Article 2.2 states that “[t]his Constitution guarantees the Islamic identity of the majority of the Iraqi people and guarantees the full religious rights to freedom of religious belief and practice of all individuals such as Christians, Yazidis, and Mandean Sabeans” (constituteproject.org).

References:

Iraq 1925 Constitution: https://constitution.org/1-Constitution/cons/iraq/iraqiconst19250321.html

“Iraq 2005 Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 21, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Iraq_2005.
IsraelFreedom of ReligionFreedom of religion is established in the 1992 Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty. This law describes Israel as a “Jewish and democratic state”, but also “references the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, which protects freedom to practice or not practice religious beliefs, including freedom of conscience, faith, religion, and worship, regardless of an individual’s religion” (state.gov).

The Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, promulgated in 1948, stated: "THE STATE OF ISRAEL will be open for Jewish immigration and for the Ingathering of the Exiles; it will foster the development of the country for the benefit of all its inhabitants; it will be based on freedom, justice and peace as envisaged by the prophets of Israel; it will ensure complete equality of social and political rights to all its inhabitants irrespective of religion, race or sex; it will guarantee freedom of religion, conscience, language, education and culture; it will safeguard the Holy Places of all religions; and it will be faithful to the principles of the Charter of the United Nations."

"Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel: https://www.gov.il/en/departments/general/declaration-of-establishment-state-of-israel

Israel, West Bank and Gaza - United States Department of State. Accessed July 21, 2023. https://www.state.gov/reports/2021-report-on-international-religious-freedom/israel-west-bank-and-gaza/.
ItalyFreedom of ReligionThe Constitution of the Italian Republic was ratified on 22 December 1947. Article 7 states a separation between the state of Italy and the Catholic Church. Articles 3, 8, 19, and 20 grant religious freedom and equality. Article 8 of the Italian Constitution states: “All religious denominations are equally free before the law” but stipulates that “Denominations other than Catholicism have the right to self-organisation according to their own statutes, provided these do not conflict with Italian law” (constituteproject.org). “Italy 1947 (Rev. 2020) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 21, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Italy_2020.
Ivory CoastFreedom of ReligionThe Constitution of the Republic of Ivory Coast was ratified on October 30, 2016. Articles 4, 14, 19, and 23 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination. The preamble, articles 49, and 178 declare Ivory Coast to be a secular state. Article 19 states: "Freedom of thought and freedom of expression, particularly, freedom of conscience, of philosophical and religious conviction or of worship are guaranteed to everyone. Everyone has the right to express and disseminate their ideas freely. These freedoms are exercised subject to respect for the law, for the rights of others, for national security and for public order. Any propaganda whose objective or outcome is to elevate one social group above another, or to encourage racial, tribal or religious, hatred is prohibited."(constituteproject.org). “Côte d’Ivoire 2016 Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 21, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Cote_DIvoire_2016.
JamaicaFreedom of ReligionThe Jamaican Order in Council was ratified in 1962. Articles 13, 14(a), and 17 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination. Jamaican Legislature. “The Jamaica (Constitution) Order in Council 1962 .” Jamaican Informational Service . Jamaican Informational Service , 2017. Last modified 2017. Accessed June 16, 2022. https://jis.gov.jm/media/Ja-Constitution-Order-in-Council-1962-full.pdf.
JapanFreedom of ReligionArticle 28 of the 1889 Japan Constitution stated: "Japanese subjects shall, within limits not prejudicial to peace and order, and not antagonistic to their duties as subjects, enjoy freedom of religious belief." Article 20 of the 1946 Constitution offered a more detailed discussion of freedom of religion: "Freedom of religion is guaranteed to all. No religious organization shall receive any privileges from the State, nor exercise any political authority. No person shall be compelled to take part in any religious act, celebration, rite or practice. The State and its organs shall refrain from religious education or any other religious activity."

References:

1889 Japan Constitution: https://constituteproject.org/constitution/Japan_1889

1946 Japan Constitution: https://japan.kantei.go.jp/constitution_and_government_of_japan/constitution_e.html
JordanFreedom of ReligionThe Constitution of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan was ratified in 1952. Articles 6 and 14 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination. Article 2 declares Islam the official religion.

1952. The Constitution of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. July 11. https://www.refworld.org/pdfid/3ae6b53310.pdf.

Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Constitutional Court “Jordanian Constitution.” CCO. Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Constitutional Court, 2022. Last modified 2022. Accessed June 17, 2022. https://cco.gov.jo/en-us/Jordanian-Constitutional.
KazakhstanFreedom of ReligionArticles 1 and 10 of the 1993 Kazakhstan Constitution bear in part upon freedom of religion, but Article 12 speaks to this right most directly: "A citizen of the Republic shall be guaranteed freedom of conscience - the right to independently determine his attitude towards religion, to profess any of them or to profess none, to disseminate views, connected with the attitude towards religion, and to act in accordance with them".

References:

"The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan," International Legal Perspectives 5, no. 1 (1993): 110-112
KenyaFreedom of ReligionThe right to freedom of religion can be found in Kenya’s Independence Constitution of 1963, ratified on December 10, 1963. Article 22, Part 1 states: "Except with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of conscience, and for the purposes of this section the said freedom includes freedom of thought and of religion, freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others, and both in public and in private, to manifest and propagate his religion or belief in worship, teaching, practice and observance." . (“The Constitution of Kenya”, 1963). Exceptions to this were conceived in terms of laws "(a) in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health; or (b) for the purpose of protecting the rights and freedoms of other persons, including the right to observe and practise any religion without the unsolicited intervention of members of any other religion." The language in the 1963 Constitution is repeated in the 1969 Constitution, at Article 79.1.

In the 2010 Constitution, articles 21.3, 27.4, and 32 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination. The Preamble acknowledges the supremacy of God, Article 8 declares no state religion.

References:

1963 Constitution of Kenya: English official original text of the Constitution of 1963 as appended to the Kenya Independence Order in Council 1963. 40 (1963) Chapter II: Protection of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms of the Individual: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzke0008&id=41&men_tab=srchresults

1969. The Constitution of Kenya: https://repository.kippra.or.ke/bitstream/handle/123456789/2324/THE%20CONSTITUTION%20OF%20KENYA%20ACT%201969%20No%205.%20of%201969.pdf?sequence=1.

KLRC. “Home.” Kenya Law Reform Commission (KLRC). KLRC, 2022. Last modified 2022. Accessed June 17, 2022. https://www.klrc.go.ke/index.php/constitution-of-kenya.
Kingdom of the NetherlandsFreedom of ReligionThe Constitution of the Kingdom of the Netherlands was ratified on 29 March 1814. Articles 1, 6.1, 23.3, and 23.5 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination. Article 6 Section 1 of this constitution states “[e]veryone shall have the right to profess freely his religion or belief, either individually or in community with others, without prejudice to his responsibility under the law” (constituteproject.org).

Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties. “The Constitution of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2008.” Government of the Netherlands. Ministerie van Algemene Zaken, April 29, 2014. Last modified April 29, 2014. Accessed June 23, 2022. https://www.government.nl/documents/regulations/2012/10/18/the-constitution-of-the-kingdom-of-the-netherlands-2008.

“Netherlands 1814 (Rev. 2008) Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 26, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Netherlands_2008.
KiribatiFreedom of ReligionThe Constitution, contained within the Independence Order of Kiribati ratified on July 12, 1979, established freedom of religion in Kiribati. The right can be located in Chapter II, Article 11, Part 1 (“Kiribati Independence Order of 1979”, 1979).

1979. Kiribati Independence Order of 1979. July 12. https://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/Kiribati%20Constitution.pdf.

PACII. “Constitution of Kiribati.” Pacific Islands Legal Information Institute . University of the South Pacific School of Law, May 6, 2022. Last modified May 6, 2022. Accessed June 17, 2022. http://www.paclii.org/ki/legis/consol_act/cok257.pdf.
KuwaitFreedom of ReligionThe first assertion of the right to freedom of religion in Kuwait is in the Constitution of 1962, ratified on November 11, 1962. The right can be found in Part III, Article 35. Part 1, Article 2 establishes the official religion as Islam (“Kuwait 1962 Constitution”, 1962). “Kuwait 1962 Constitution.” 1962. Constitute Project. November 11. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Kuwait_1992?lang=en.
KyrgyzstanFreedom of ReligionAccording to Article 16.2 of the 1993 Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic as amended in February 1996, "Every person in the Kyrgyz Republic shall enjoy the right ... to freedom of creed, spirit and worship". A general assertion of freedom of expression is offered in the same article.

References:

1993 Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic as amended in February 1996: http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/research/kyrgyzrepublic-constitution.html
LaosFreedom of ReligionLaos first established the right to freedom of religion in the 1991 Constitution, ratified on August 15. The right can be found in Chapter 1, Article 9 (“CONSTITUTION OF THE LAO PEOPLE'S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC”, 1991). “CONSTITUTION OF THE LAO PEOPLE’S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC.” 1991. International Labour Organization. August 15. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/75323/87941/F1091614924/LAO75323.pdf.
LatviaFreedom of ReligionThe first assertion of freedom of religion is in the 1922 Latvian Constitution, ratified on February 15th. The right can be found in Chapter VIII, Article 99 (“Latvia 1922 Constitution”, 1922).

“Latvia 1922 Constitution.” 1922. Constitute Project. February 15. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Latvia_2016.

The Constitutional Assembly. “Latvijas Republikas Satversme.” LIKUMI Latvia . Latvijas Vēstnesis, 1993. Last modified 1993. Accessed June 17, 2022. https://likumi.lv/ta/en/en/id/57980.
LebanonFreedom of ReligionThe first assertion of freedom of religion in Lebanon was in their 1926 Constitution, ratified on May 23. Articles 9, 10, 19, and 22 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination. (“The Lebanese Constitution”, 1926). 1926. The Lebanese Constitution. Lebanese Parliament. May 23. https://www.lp.gov.lb/backoffice/uploads/files/Lebanese%20%20Constitution-%20En.pdf.
LesothoFreedom of ReligionFreedom of conscience was guaranteed in the 1966 Lesotho Constitution. The right to religious freedom in Lesotho can be found in the 1993 Constitution, ratified on April 2nd. Articles 4.1, 13, 16.1, 18.3, 18.5, and 26.1 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination. (“Lesotho 1993 Constitution”, 1993).

References:

1966 Lesotho Constitution: O’LEARY, B. L. “THE CONSTITUTION OF LESOTHO: AN OUTLINE.” The Comparative and International Law Journal of Southern Africa 1, no. 2 (1968): 266–70. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23240737.

“Lesotho 1993 Constitution.” 1993. Constitute Project. April 2. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Lesotho_2018.
LiberiaFreedom of ReligionThe Liberian Constitution of 1847 is the first document in the country’s history to assert freedom of Religion. Article 3 of the document specifically outlines this right.

More recently, the Constitution of the Republic of Liberia was ratified on 6 January 1986. Articles 14, and 18 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination. Articles 14 declares a separation between religion and the state.

“Constitutional Convention of 1847.” Government of Liberia. Accessed June 25, 2023. http://crc.gov.lr/doc/CONSTITUTION%20OF%201847%20final.pdf

National Constitution Committee. “1986 Constitution of the Republic of Liberia.” Judiciary of the Republic of Liberia. Supreme Court of Liberia, 1986. Last modified 1986. Accessed June 17, 2022. http://judiciary.gov.lr/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/CONSTITUTION-OF-THE-REPUBLIC-OF-LIBERIA.pdf.
LibyaFreedom of ReligionArticle 21 of Libya’s 1951 Constitution contains the first assertion of freedom of religion in the state’s independent history. However, Libya has gone through significant changes in government since the founding of this document. Under the 2011 Constitution Article 6 grants freedom of religion and prohibits religious discrimination. Article 1 declares Islam the official religion of Libya.


“Constitution of 1951.” DCAF Libya. Accessed July 25, 2023. https://security-legislation.ly/en/law/31474

“Libya’s Constitution of 2011.” Constitute. Accessed July 25, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Libya_2011.pdf
LiechtensteinFreedom of ReligionLiechtenstein’s 1862 Constitution is the first document in the country’s history to assert freedom of religion. Article 8 of the document specifically defines this right, stating that “freedom of the person and of external worship are guaranteed.”

In the 1921 Constitution of the Principality of Liechtenstein, Articles 37.1 and 39 grant religious freedom, and Article 37.2 declares the Roman Catholic Church is the official church. Article 37 states: “1) Freedom of religion and conscience shall be guaranteed for all. 2) The Roman Catholic Church is the National Church and as such shall enjoy the full protection of the State; other denominations shall be entitled to practice their creeds and to hold religious services within the limits of morality and public order.”

“Constitution of 26 September 1862.” World Constitutions Illustrated, Heinonline. Accessed July 26, 2023. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.cow/zzli0005&i=2

Parliament of Liechtenstein. “Constitution of the Principality of Liechtenstein.” State Administration of the Principality of Liechtenstein. State Administration of the Principality of Liechtenstein, 2014. Last modified 2014. https://www.llv.li/files/rdr/Verfassung-E-01-02-2014.pdf
LithuaniaFreedom of ReligionThe first assertion of freedom of religion in Lithuania’s post-Soviet history is contained in the country’s 1992 Constitution. Articles 26, 27, and 43 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit discrimination. Article 43 asserts that there shall be no state religion in Lithuania.


“Lithuania 1992 (rev. 2006).” Constitute. Accessed July 26, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Lithuania_2006

Parliament of Lithuania . “CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA.” Lietuvos Respubilkos Siemas . Parliament of Lithuania , March 20, 2003. Last modified March 20, 2003. Accessed June 17, 2022. https://e-seimas.lrs.lt/portal/legalActPrint/lt?jfwid=rivwzvpvg&documentId=TAIS.211295&category=TAD.
LuxembourgFreedom of ReligionLuxembourg’s Constitution of 1848 was the first document to guarantee freedom of religion in the country’s independent history. Articles 20 and 21 specifically outline this right.


“Mémorial Législatif et Administratif du Grande-Duché de Luxembourg.” Strada Lex Luxembourg. Accessed July 26, 2023. https://www.stradalex.lu/fr/slu_src_publ_leg_mema/toc/leg_lu_mema_184807_52/doc/mema_1848A0389A
MadagascarFreedom of ReligionArticle 39 of Madagascar’s 1975 Constitution contains the first assertion of freedom of religion in the country’s independent history. However, the preamble of the country’s 1959 Constitution does protect freedom of speech, assembly, and association which may have helped protect freedom of religion to an extent.


“Constitution de la République démocratique malgache.” Digithèque MJP. Accessed July 26, 2023. https://mjp.univ-perp.fr/constit/mg1975.htm#2

“Constitution of the Malagasy Republic.” World Constitutions Illustrated, Heinonline. Accessed July 26, 2023. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.cow/zzmg0017&i=2
MalawiFreedom of ReligionThe first assertion of freedom of religion in Malawi’s independent history is contained in the country’s 1964 Constitution. Article 19(1) specifically defines this right: “Except with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of conscience, and for the purposes of this section the said freedom includes freedom of thought and of religion, freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others, and both in public and private, to manifest and propagate his religion or belief in worship, teaching, practice and observance.”

References:

“Constitution of Malawi.” Citizenship Rights Africa. Accessed July 26, 2023. http://citizenshiprightsafrica.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/03/Malawi-Constitution-1964.pdf
MalaysiaFreedom of ReligionArticle 11, Clause 1 of Malaysia’s 1957 Constitution contains the first assertion of freedom of religion in the country’s independent history: "Every person has the right to profess and practice his religion and, subject to Clause (4), to propagate it." The article’s 4th clause, to which clause 1 referred, stipulates that “State law and in respect of the Federal Territories of Kuala Lumpur, Labuan and Putrajaya, federal law may control or restrict the propagation of any religious doctrine or belief among persons professing the religion of Islam.” Furthermore, Article 11, Clause 5 offers a further condition: "This Article does not authorize any act contrary to any general law relating to public order, public health or morality." Article 11, Clause 2 asserted that citizens would not be required to pay taxes in support of any religion that was not their own, and Article 11, Clause 3 specified the rights of religious groups: "Every religious group has the right - (a) to manage its own religious affairs; (b) to establish and maintain institutions for religious or charitable purposes; and (c) to acquire and own property and hold and administer it in accordance with law." Finally, Article 3, Clause 1 offers a general guarantee of freedom of religious practice: "Islam is the religion of the Federation; but other religions may be practised in peace and harmony in any part of the Federation."

References:

1957 Malaysia Constitution: http://www.commonlii.org/my/legis/const/1957/2.html
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MaliFreedom of ReligionArticle 4 of Mali’s Fundamental Law No. 1 (1991) contains the first assertion of freedom of religion in Mali’s independent history. This was followed up by a 1992 Constitution which also protected the right.


“Acte Fondamental No. 1/C.T.S.P.” World Constitutions Illustrated. Accessed July 26, 2023. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.cow/zzml0008&i=3

“Mali 1992.” Constitute. Accessed July 26, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Mali_1992
MaltaFreedom of ReligionArticle 40(1) of Malta’s 1964 Constitution contains the first guarantee of freedom of religion in the country’s independent history. Meanwhile, Article 2 states that the country’s official faith is the Roman Catholic Apolistic Religion.


“Malta 1964 (rev. 2016).” Constitute. Accessed July 26, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Malta_2016
Marshall IslandsFreedom of ReligionThe Marshall Islands’ Constitution of 1979 contains the first assertion of freedom of religion in the country’s independent history. Section 1 specifically outlines this right.


“The Constitution of the Republic of the Marshall Islands.” Republic of the Marshall Islands Parliament. Accessed July 27, 2023. https://rmiparliament.org/cms/constitution.html
MauritaniaFreedom of ReligionArticle 2 of Mauritania’s 1959 Constitution contains the first assertion of freedom of religion in the country’s independent history. The document also states that “the religion of the Mauritanian people is the Muslim religion.”

Mauritania’s 1991 constitution was adopted on 12 July of that year. The preamble and Article 1 guarantee equality under the law, however it does not include religion as a distinct protected class. Article 5 declares that Islam is the state religion.

“Islamic Republic of Mauritania Constitution of 22 March 1959.” World Constitutions Illustrated, Heinonline. Accessed July 27, 2023. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.cow/zzmr0017&i=3

Constitution Project. “Mauritania 1991 (Rev. 2012) Constitution.” Constitute. POGO , April 27, 2022. Last modified April 27, 2022. Accessed June 21, 2022. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Mauritania_2012?lang=en.
MauritiusFreedom of ReligionThe Constitution of the Republic of Mauritius was ratified on 12 March 1968. Articles 11 and 14.1 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination.

Mauritius National Assembly. Mauritius National Assembly. Mauritius Government, May 2018. Last modified May 2018. Accessed June 21, 2022. https://mauritiusassembly.govmu.org/.

“Mauritius 1968 (rev. 2016).” Constitute. Accessed July 27, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Mauritius_2016
MexicoFreedom of ReligionThe Political Constitution of the Mexican United States was ratified on 5 February 1917. Articles 1, 3.2(c), 24, 27.2, 130(b-d) grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination. Article 130 declares a separation of church and state; and that religious minister cannot promote candidate, nor attack national symbols.

Article 24 of Mexico’s 1917 Constitution, which is still in use today, contains the first assertion of freedom of religion in the country’s post-revolutionary history. However, prior to the 1910 Revolution, the first amendment to the country’s 1859 Constitution (also known as the Law of September 25, 1873) did state that the legislature should not adopt any law that established or forbid a religion.

Constituent Congress of 1917. “Koxtitusion Poríitika Mejikopo Nesaweme Constitución ... - Senado.gob.mx.” Senate of the Republic. Mexican Government, 2005. Last modified 2005. Accessed June 21, 2022. https://www.senado.gob.mx/comisiones/puntos_constitucionales/docs/CPM_INGLES.pdf.

“Constitution.” World Constitutions Illustrated, Heinonline. Accessed July 27, 2023. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.cow/zzmx0010&i=1

“Mexico 1917 (rev. 2015).” Constitute. Accessed July 27, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Mexico_2015
MoldovaFreedom of ReligionConstitution of the Republic of Moldova was ratified on 27 July 1994. Articles 10.2, 31, 32.3, and 35.8 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination. The preamble declares secular aspirations for the state of Moldova. Parliament of the Republic of Moldova. “Constitution of the Republic of Moldova .” Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova . Constitutional Court of the Republic of Moldova , 2022. Last modified 2022. Accessed June 21, 2022. https://www.constcourt.md/public/files/file/Actele%20Curtii/acte_en/MDA_Constitution_EN.pdf.
MonacoFreedom of ReligionArticle 10 of Monaco’s 1911 Constitution contains the first assertion of freedom of religion in the country’s history. The document was then heavily revised in 1962 and remains in use to this day. In the 1962 Constitution, Article 23 grants religious freedom. Article 9 declares Catholicism the official state religion.

“Constitution of Monaco.” World Constitutions Illustrated. Accessed July 27, 2023. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.beal/connat0002&i=474

Prince Rainer III and National Council of Monaco. Princely Government of the Principality of Monaco . Princely Government of the Principality of Monaco , 2002. Last modified 2002. Accessed June 21, 2022. https://en.gouv.mc/Government-Institutions/Institutions/Constitution-of-the-Principality#eztoc1036069_1.
MongoliaFreedom of ReligionThe Fundamental Law of Mongolia was ratified on 13 January 1992. Articles 14, 16.15, and 19.2 grant religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination. Article 9 declares that the state may not engage in religious activities. However, when the country was known as the Mongolian People’s Republic, the right was first enshrined in its 1940 Constitution.


“Constitution of the Mongol People’s Republic.” World Constitutions Illustrated, Heinonline. Accessed July 27, 2023. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.cow/cososnat0002&i=735

The People's Great Khural. “The Constitution of Mongolia.” Constitutional Court of Mongolia . Constitutional Court of Mongolia , 2022. Last modified 2022. Accessed June 21, 2022. https://www.conscourt.gov.mn/?page_id=842&lang=en.

“Mongolia 1992 (rev. 2001).” Constitute. Accessed July 27, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Mongolia_2001
MontenegroFreedom of ReligionAccording to Article 208 if the 1905 Constitution: "Liberty of conscience is unlimited. The recognized religious confessions are free and protected by the law in so far as the exercise of their cult does not offend public order and morals."

In the 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Montenegro, Articles 11, 34, 43, 67, 70, 74, and 76 grant extensive religious freedom, equality, and prohibit religious discrimination. Article 11 declares separation of church and state. In Montenegro’s Constitution of 2007, Article 46 specifically describes the freedom of religion, which is also alluded to in Article 14.

1905 Montenegro Constitution: English translation from the French text of the original Constitution of 1905 "Part 14: The Constitutional Rights of Montenegrin Citizens," Constitution of 6/19 December 1905. (1905): 426-427: https://heinonline-org.mutex.gmu.edu/HOL/Page?handle=hein.cow/zzmb0013&id=20&collection=cow&index=

The Assembly of the Republic of Montenegro. “Constitution of the Republic of Montenegro.” Government of Montenegro. Ministry of Justice, January 30, 2004. Last modified January 30, 2004. Accessed June 21, 2022. https://www.gov.me/en/documents/d7f0c262-dfa2-448b-a2c3-1e5ba628f2bb.

“Montenegro 2007.” Constitute. Accessed July 27, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Montenegro_2007
MoroccoFreedom of ReligionFreedom of religion is protected in Morocco in tandem with the establishment of a state religion. Article 6 of the first Moroccan constitution of 1962 determines that Islam is the religion of the state while also protecting “the free exercise of beliefs [cultes]” for all (Hein Online). This right is still protected today under Article 3 of the current constitution (constituteproject.org).

"Fundamental Principles." Constitution of Morocco, pp. 562-563. HeinOnline, https://heinonline-org.uc.idm.oclc.org/HOL/P?h=hein.cow/zzma0011&i=1.

“Morocco 2011 Constitution.” Constitute. Accessed July 26, 2023. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Morocco_2011.
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