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El Salvador 🖉 edit

The Constitution of El Salvador grants its citizens political rights under Chapter III, Citizens, Their Political Rights and Duties in The Electoral Body. Article 71 allows those over the age of 18 to vote and Article 72 secures the exercise of suffrage (Constitute Project, โ€œEl Salvador's Constitution of 1983 with Amendments through 2014โ€ )

Equatorial Guinea 🖉 edit

Under the First Title, Fundamental Principles of the State, Article 2 of the Constitution of Equatorial Guinea grants the people with sovereignty to be exercised by way of universal suffrage (Constitute Project, โ€œEquatorial Guinea's Constitution of 1991 with Amendments through 2012โ€ ).

Eritrea 🖉 edit

Eritrea is a militarized authoritarian state and there has not been a national election since the independence from Ethiopia in 1993 (Freedom House, โ€œEritreaโ€).

Estonia 🖉 edit

Chapter III, The People, Article 56 allows for the supreme power of state to be exercised by the people through citizens with the right to vote. Article 57 grants the right to vote to those of the age of 18 (Constitute Project, โ€œEstonia's Constitution of 1992 with Amendments through 2015โ€ ).

Eswatini 🖉 edit

Under Chapter VII, The Legislature, Section 88, Qualifications as a Voter, a person is qualified to vote if they are of the age of 18 and a citizen or ordinarily resident in Swaziland (Constitute Project, โ€œEswatini Constitution of 2005โ€ ).

Ethiopia 🖉 edit

Article 38 of the Ethopian Constitution grants every Ethiopian national that is 18 years of age, without any discrimination, to take part in the conduct of public affairs, directly and through freely chosen representatives through universal and equal suffrage (Constitute Project, โ€œEthiopia's Constitution of 1994โ€ ).

Federated States of Micronesia 🖉 edit

Under Article VI, a citizen of 18 years of age or greater may vote in secret national elections to the Senate. Law shall determine the length of time one must be a resident to register to vote. Conviction of a crime and insanity remove ones ability to vote. (Constitute Project, โ€œMicronesiaโ€™s (Federal States of) Constitution of 1978 with Amendments through 1990โ€ ).

Fiji 🖉 edit

According to Chapter 3, Parliament, Part B, Composition, Section 55, Voter Qualifications and Registration, of the Constitution of Fiji every citizen who is 18 years of age has the right to be registered as a voter, in the manner and form prescribed by a written law governing elections or registration of voters. (Constitute Project, โ€œFiji's Constitution of 2013โ€ )

Finland 🖉 edit

Section 14 of the Finish Constitution grants universal suffrage to every Finnish citizen who has reached 18 years of age and has the right to vote in national elections and referendums (Constitute Project, โ€œFinland's Constitution of 1999 with Amendments through 2011โ€ ).

France 🖉 edit

Under Article 3 of the French Constitution suffrage may be direct or indirect and will always be universal, equal and secret. (Constitute Project, โ€œFrance's Constitution of 1958 with Amendments through 2008โ€ )

Gabon 🖉 edit

Under Title I, Article 4, Suffrage can be direct or indirect, is universal and secret. Gabonese citizens must be at least 18 years of age to vote. (Constitute Project, โ€œGabonโ€™s Constitution of 1991 with Amendments through 2011โ€ ).

Georgia 🖉 edit

Under Article 37 and Article 74 of Georgiaโ€™s Constitution, citizens have the right to vote in local elections and for members of Parliament in fair and free elections by secret ballots. (Constitute Project, โ€œGeorgiaโ€™s Constitution of 1995 with revisions through 2018โ€ ).

Germany 🖉 edit

Under Article 37 of Germanyโ€™s constitution, every citizen over the age of 18 is allowed to vote in elections. Members of the German Butdestag are elected every four years via free, equal, direct, and secret elections (Constitute Project, โ€œGermanyโ€™s Constitution of 1949 with Amendments through 2014โ€ ).

Ghana 🖉 edit

Under Chapter 7, Article 42, every citizen over the age of 18 and of sound mind is eligible to vote in public elections and referendum via secret ballot. (Constitute Project, โ€œGhanaโ€™s Constitution of 1992 with Amendments through 1996โ€ ).

Greece 🖉 edit

Under Section III, Article 51, every citizen who has met the minimum age requirement of 18, is not legally incapactiated, and has not had the right revoked for criminal actions must vote for members of Parliament via direct and secret ballots.(Constitute Project, โ€œGreeceโ€™s Constitution of 1975 with Amendments through 2008โ€ ).

Grenada 🖉 edit

Under Chapter III, Part I, any citizen who is 18 years of age or older may vote for his/her district representative for the House of Representatives unless that right has been legally revoked by Parliament. (Constitute Project, โ€œGrenadaโ€™s Constitution of 1973, Reinstated in 1991 and with Amendments through 1992โ€ ).

Guatemala 🖉 edit

Under Chapter II, any citizen, by definition over 18 years of age, has the freedom of suffrage. Citizens may cast secret ballots to elect the Congress of the Republic, President, and Vice-President. (Consitute Project, โ€œGuatemalaโ€™s Constitution of 1985 with Amendments through 1993โ€ ).

Guinea 🖉 edit

Under Guineaโ€™s Constitution, the President and members of the legislature are elected via free, equal, direct, and secret elections. All citizens are allowed to vote as long as they are over 18 and meet citizenship requirements. (Constitute Project, โ€œGuineaโ€™s Constitution of 2010โ€ ).

Guinea-Bissau 🖉 edit

According to Section II, Article 63, The President of the Republic is elected through universal, secret suffrage of the electing citizens. Electing citizens must be 18 years or older. (Constitute Project, โ€œGuinea-Bissauโ€™s Constitution of 1984 with Amendments through 1996โ€ ).

Guyana 🖉 edit

According to Title II, persons 18 years or upwards and either a citizen of Guyana or a commonwealth citizen who has also been a Guyana resident for 1 year may vote in elections for Parliament. (Constitute Project, โ€œGuyanaโ€™s Constitution of 1980 with Amendments through 2016โ€ ).

Haiti 🖉 edit

Under Article 17, Haitians 21 years or older may participate in universal voting regardless of sex or marital status. (Constitute Project, โ€œHaitian Constitution of 1987 with Amendments through 2012โ€ ).

Honduras 🖉 edit

According to Article 5, voting is seen as a public duty. All Honduras citizens, by definition over the age of 18, are obligated to vote in universal, egalitarian, direct, free, and secret elections. (Constitute Project, โ€œHondurasโ€™ Constitution of 1982 with Amendments through 2013โ€ ).

Hungary 🖉 edit

Under Articles 2 and 35, members of the National Assembly and of Local government are elected via fair and equal elections. (Constitute Project, โ€œHungryโ€™s Constitution of 2011 with Amendments through 2016โ€ ).

Iceland 🖉 edit

Under Article 33, all Icelandic citizens of the age of 18 or older have the right to vote in Althingi. Permanent naturalized Icelandic citizens is a requirement for non-birthright persons who wish to vote. Under Article 5, such persons may also vote for president. (Constitute Project, โ€œIcelandโ€™s Constitution of 1944 with Amendments through 2013โ€ ).

India 🖉 edit

Article 326 of the Constitution provides that the elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assembly of every State shall be on the basis of adult suffrage. The Constitution Act of 1988, the Sixty-first Amendment changed the age of voting to 18 (Government of India, โ€œThe Constitution (Sixty-first Amendment) Act, 1988โ€ ).

Indonesia 🖉 edit

Citizens of Indonesia vote for members of the Peopleโ€™s Representative Council as long as they are over 17 and have a valid voter ID card. (Constitute Project, โ€œIndonesiaโ€™s Constitution of 1945, reinstated in 1959 with Amendments through 2002โ€ ).

Iran 🖉 edit

Under Article 62, the Islamaic Consultative Assembly is elected directly by the people through a secret ballot. Eligible voters must either be birthright citizens of the Islamic Republic of Iran or naturalized citizens and of an age dictated by referendums and law. Under Article 6, the President and referendums must also be voted on by the public. (Constitute Project, โ€œIranโ€™s (Islamic Republic of) Constitution of 1979 with Amendments through 1989โ€ ).

Iraq 🖉 edit

In Article 20, the Iraqi Constitution states that all citizens shall have the right to vote, elect, and run for office. The voting age in Iraq is 18 years old. (Constitute Project, โ€œIraqโ€™s Constitution of 2005โ€ ).

Israel 🖉 edit

Under Article 5, all Israeli Nationals over the age of 18 have the right to vote in elections to the Knesset, unless a court has deprived them of that right. (Constitute Project, โ€œIsraelโ€™s Constitution of 1958 with Amendments through 2019โ€ ).

Italy 🖉 edit

Under Article 48, any citizen, regardless of gender, who has attained majority is entitled to vote. The vote is free, secret, and a civic duty. The Chamber of Deputies is elected via universal suffrage, the Senate of the Republic is elected via regional voting, (Constitute Project, โ€œItalyโ€™s Constitution of 1947 with Amendments through 2020โ€ ).

Ivory Coast 🖉 edit

Under Article 48, any citizen, regardless of gender, who has attained majority is entitled to vote. The vote is free, secret, and a civic duty. The Chamber of Deputies is elected via universal suffrage, the Senate of the Republic is elected via regional voting, (Constitute Project, โ€œItalyโ€™s Constitution of 1947 with Amendments through 2020โ€ ).

Jamaica 🖉 edit

According to Article 37, any Jamaican citizen 21 years or older may be an elector in elections for the House of Representatives. Any naturalized citizen may also vote in elections for the House of Representatives as long as they have been naturalized for at least 12 months prior to registering to vote. (Constitute Project, โ€œJamaicaโ€™s Constitution of 1962 with Amendments through 2015โ€ ).

Japan 🖉 edit

According to Article 15, Japanese citizens have an inalienable right to elect their public officials, both local and to the house of representatives. Universal adult suffrage is guaranteed to all citizens above an age set by referendum. (Constitute Project, โ€œJapanโ€™s Constitution of 1946 with Amendmentsโ€).

Jordan 🖉 edit

According to Article 67, the House of Representatives shall be composed of members elected by general, secret and direct elections by the citizens of Jordan which will be defined by law. (Constitute Project, โ€œJordanโ€™s Constitution of 1952 with Amendments through 2016โ€ ).

Kazakhstan 🖉 edit

According to Article 86, local representatives shall be elected by the of-age population through universal, secret suffrage for a five year term. In addition, under Article 41, the President of the Republic shall also be elected by the of-age population through universal suffrage via a secret ballot. (Constitute Project, โ€œKazakhstanโ€™s Constitution of 1995 with Amendments through 2017โ€ ).

Kenya 🖉 edit

Under Article 38, every citizen has the right to free and fair elections based on universal suffrage. Every citizen over the age of 18 can register as a voter, vote by secret ballot or in a referendum, and run for elected office. (Constitute Project, โ€œKazakhstanโ€™s Constitution of 2010โ€ ).

Kingdom of the Netherlands 🖉 edit

Article 4 of the Dutch Constitution states that every Dutch citizen has the right to elect members of Parliament and run for office, so long as they are over the age of 18. The voting age is set by Parliament. (Constitute Project, โ€œ Kingdom of the Netherland's Constitution of 1814 with Amendments through 2008โ€ ).

Kiribati 🖉 edit

Under Article 64, every citizen of Kiribati who is over 18 and is a resident of one of the electoral districts established by the Kiribati constitution is entitled to be an elector in the district in which he is a resident. The person may then vote for his representative in the Maneaba ni Maungatabu. (Constitute Project, โ€œKiribatiโ€™s Constitution of 1979 with Amendments through 2013โ€ ).

Kuwait 🖉 edit

Under Article 87, citizens have a right to elect members of The National Assembly every 4 years or if the Emir calls for a special election after dissolving The National Assembly. (Constitute Project, โ€œKuwaitโ€™s Constitution of 1979, reinstated in 1992โ€ ).

Kyrgyzstan 🖉 edit

Under Article 2, all citizens over the age of 18 are entitled to universal suffrage by equal and direct elections with secret ballots. Citizens vote for the President of the country and members of the Jogorku Kenesh. (Constitute Project, โ€œKyrgyzstanโ€™s Constitution of 2010, with Amendments through 2016โ€ )

Laos 🖉 edit

Under Article 4, members of the National Assembly and the Local Peopleโ€™s Assemblies are voted into office via equal and direct voting with secret ballots. The voting age in Laos is 18 years old. (Constitute Project, Laosโ€™s Constitution of 1991, with Amendments through 2015)

Latvia 🖉 edit

Under Chapter II, Article 6, The Saeima shall be elected in general, equal, and direct elections and by secret ballot through proportional representation by Latvian citizens over 18 years of age. Citizens who are eligible to vote for The Saeima are also eligible to vote in national referendums according to Chapter III, Article 80 of the Latvian Constitution. (Constitute Project, โ€œLatviaโ€™s Constitution of 1992, reinstated in 1991, with Amendments through 2016โ€ ).

Lebanon 🖉 edit

Under Article 21, every Lebanese citizen twenty-one years or older has the right to vote in public elections. Elections elect members to the Board of Deputies. (Constitute Project, Lebanonโ€™s Constitution of 1926 with Amendments through 2004โ€ ).

Lesotho 🖉 edit

Under Article 57, Citizens of Lesotho who are 18 years of age or older and reside in Lesotho may vote in elections to The National Assembly, which is the first chamber of the Lesotho government. (Constitute Project, โ€œLesothoโ€™ Constitution of 1993 with Amendments through 2018โ€ ).

Liberia 🖉 edit

Under Article 83, Citizens of Liberia may vote for the President, Vice-President, members of the Senate, members of The House of Representatives, and referendum once they meet the legal adult age as dictated by law. (Constitute Project, Liberiaโ€™s Constitution of 1986โ€ ).

Libya 🖉 edit

Under Article 18, The National Transitional Council is the electoral body responsible for electing the President of Libya. This council consists of members of the local councils throughout the country. (Constitute Project, Libyaโ€™s Constitution of 2011 with Amendments through 2012โ€ ).

Liechtenstein 🖉 edit

According to Article 46, Parliament shall consist of 25 publicly selected representatives that will be elected through secret, universal, and direct suffrage by Liechtenstein citizens over the age set by law. (Constitute Project, โ€œLiechtensteinโ€™s Constitution of 1921 with Amendments through 2011โ€ ).

Lithuania 🖉 edit

According to Article 78, any citizen who has reached the age of 18 by election day has a right to vote in public, direct, and secret elections for the President of the Republic. Under Article 34, those who are eligible to vote for the President of the Republic may also participate in the elections of the Seimas. (Constitute Project, โ€œLithuaniaโ€™s Constitution of 1992 with Amendments through 2019โ€ ).

Luxembourg 🖉 edit

Under Article 32bis, The Deputies of the Chamber of Deputies are elected by universal suffrage following the rules of proportional representation. Any Luxembourg citizen of the age of 18 or older is eligible to vote in these elections according to Article 52. (Constitute Project, โ€œLuxembourgโ€™s Constitution of 1868 with Amendments through 2009โ€ ).

Madagascar 🖉 edit

Under Article 5, Madagascarโ€™s Constitution grants universal suffrage via direct and indirect elections. The voting age in Madagascar is 18 years old. Additionally, Article 45 states that the President of the Republic is voted into office every 5 years by universal direct suffrage. (Constitute Project, โ€œMadagascar's Constitution of 2010 โ€).