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El Salvador 🖉 edit

Chapter 16, Section 73 of the 1841 Constitution of the State of Salvador reads: "Every citizen and inhabitant may freely express, write, and publish his opinion, without being subject to censorship, and with the sole condition of being answerable for the abuse of that liberty before a jury established by the law. In like manner, Salvadoreans may assemble peaceably and orderly to discuss questions of public interest, or to address petitions to the constituted authorities; but the originators of such meetings shall be held responsible for any disturbance which may occur."

References:

English translation of the Constitution of 1841. 218 (2010) "Chapter XVI: Declaration of the Rights, Duties, and Securities of the Nation, and of Salvadoreans in Particular," Political Constitution of the State of Salvador (1841): 218-222 https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzsv0002&id=14&men_tab=srchresults

Equatorial Guinea 🖉 edit

The 1991 Constitution codified freedom of expression in Equatorial Guinea.

Eritrea 🖉 edit

The 1997 constitution of Eritrea brought with it freedom of expression.

Estonia 🖉 edit

The 1953 European convention on Human rights protects freedom of expression along with articles 44-46 of the country's original 1938 constitution

https://www.eesti.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/human-rights/freedom-of-speech-and-religion

Eswatini 🖉 edit

Section 24 of the Eswatini constitution of 2005 protects freedom of expression.

Ethiopia 🖉 edit

Chapter III, Article 41 of the 1955 Revised Constitution of the Empire of Ethiopia states: "Art. 41. Freedom of speech and of the press is guaranteed throughout the Empire in accordance with the law."

References:

1955 Revised Constitution of the Empire of Ethiopia: Peaslee Amos J.; Xydis, Dorothy Peaslee. Constitutions of Nations. The Hague, M. Nijhoff. https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/conatio0001&id=192&men_tab=srchresults

Federated States of Micronesia 🖉 edit

Freedom of expression is protected in Micronesia by Article IV, Section 1 of the 1978 Constitution as Amended in 1990.

References:

1978 Constitution as Amended in 1990: Article IV: Declaration of Rights," Constitution of the Federated States of Micronesia, 1978 : [3]-[4] https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzmf0001&id=3&men_tab=srchresults

Fiji 🖉 edit

Freedom of expression was first protected by Article II, Section 3 of the 1970 constitution of Fiji.

References:

1970 Constitution of Fiji: Peaslee Amos J.; Xydis, Dorothy Peaslee. Constitutions of Nation. The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff. https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/ctituson0002&id=136&men_tab=srchresults

Finland 🖉 edit

The 1919 constitution of Finland was the first to protect freedom of expression.

France 🖉 edit

Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen ( 1789)

Gabon 🖉 edit

Gabon's 1991 constitution protects Freedom of expression in the very first article.

Georgia 🖉 edit

The Constitution of the democratic republic of Georgia of 1921 protect freedom of expression, and the redrafted version of this constitution is still in place today.

Germany 🖉 edit

Article 4of the "Law Concerning the Basic Rights of the German People," from 27 December 1848, asserted freedom of expression.

Article 118 of the 11 August 1919 Constitution of the German Reich (The Weimar Constitution) guaranteed freedom of expression.

References:

"IV. Fundamental Rights of the German People voted in by the National Assembly in Frankfurt.," IV. Droits Fondementaux du Peuple Allemand votes par l'Assemblee Nationale de Francfort. (1848): 210-211: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.cow/zzde0172&id=1&collection=cow&index=

The Constitution of the German Reich / August 11, 1919 / Translation of Document 2050-PS / Office of U.S. Chief of Counsel. Courtesy of Cornell University Law Library, Donovan Nuremberg Trials Collection. https://digital.library.cornell.edu/catalog/nur01840

Ghana 🖉 edit

1992 Constitution of Ghana protects freedom of expression.

Greece 🖉 edit

The 1864 reforming of the 1844 constitution brought freedom of expression to Greece. https://www.britannica.com/place/Greece/Reform-expansion-and-defeat

Grenada 🖉 edit

The 1973 constitution explicitly established freedom of expression.

https://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Grenada/gren73eng.html#mozTocId391068

Guatemala 🖉 edit

The first Guatemalan Constitution of 1825 made cursory protections of freedom of expression. These were not specified until the 1985 constitution that is still in use today.

Guinea 🖉 edit

Guinea's 2010 Constitution protects freedom of expression.

Guinea-Bissau 🖉 edit

The first constitution of Guinea Bissau codified in May 1984 protects freedom of expression.

Sources:

Constitution

Guyana 🖉 edit

Article 146of the 1980 constitution of Guyana brought with it protected freedom of expression. β€œGuyana 1980 (Rev. 2016) Constitution.” 2022. Constitute. Accessed October 30. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Guyana_2016?lang=en.

Haiti 🖉 edit

Haiti began explicitly protecting freedom of expression in 1987 with the 1987 constitution. β€œHaiti 1987 (Rev. 2012) Constitution.” 2022. Constitute. Accessed October 30. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Haiti_2012?lang=en.

Honduras 🖉 edit

In Honduras the American Convention on Human Rights signed in 1969 was the first to protect freedom of expression. β€œBasic Documents - American Declaration - Cidh.oas.org.” 2022. Accessed October 31. https://www.cidh.oas.org/Basicos/English/Basic2.American%20Declaration.htm.

Hungary 🖉 edit

In Hungary the 1989 amendments to the constitution brought freedom of expression. β€œConstitutional History of Hungary.” 2000. ConstitutionNet. June 25. https://constitutionnet.org/country/hungary.

Iceland 🖉 edit

Article 2 of the 1944 Icelandic Constitution was the first to protect freedom of expression β€œConstitution of The Republic of Iceland.” 2018. Government.is. January 19. https://www.government.is/publications/legislation/lex/2018/01/19/Constitution-of-the-Republic-of-Iceland-No.-33-17-June-1944-as-amended-30-May-1984-31-May-1991-28-June-1995-and-24-June-1999/.

India 🖉 edit

The Constitution of India Bill (also referred to as the Swaraj Bill) codified in 1895 was the first to protect freedom of expression.

β€œConstitution of India.” 2015. CAD. June. https://www.constitutionofindia.net/historical_constitutions/the_constitution_of_india_bill__unknown__1895__1st%20January%201895#:~:text=The%20Constitution%20of%20India%20Bill%201895%2C%20also%20referred%20to%20as,albeit%20within%20the%20British%20Empire.

Indonesia 🖉 edit

In Indonesia the 1945 Constitution was the first to protect freedom of expression

β€œIndonesia 1945 (Reinst. 1959, Rev. 2002) Constitution.” 2022. Constitute. Accessed October 30. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Indonesia_2002?lang=en.

Iran 🖉 edit

Article 18 of the Supplementary Constitutional Law of 7 October 1907 reads: "The acquisition and study of arts, letters and sciences is free, except in so far as they are forbidden by the Sheri." Article 20 of the same document states: "All publications, except heretical works containing matter harmful to the religion of Islam, are free, and are exempt from censureship. Whenever anything contrary to the law of the press is found in them, the publisher or author will be punished in accordance with that law. If the author is well known and resident in Persia, the publisher, printer and distributor shall be secured from any action being brought against them."

References:

Wright, Herbert F. Constitutions of the States at War 1914-1918 . Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off.: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/stwar0001&id=499&men_tab=srchresults#

Iraq 🖉 edit

Article 12 of Iraq’s 1925 Constitution protected freedom of expression: β€œFreedom of expression of opinion, liberty of publication, of meeting together, and of forming and joining associations is guaranteed to all Iraqis within such limits as may be prescribed by law”.

Article 38 of the 2005 Iraq Constitution states that "The State shall guarantee in a way that does not violate public order and morality ... [f]reedom of expression using all means"

References:

Iraq 1925 Constitution: https://constitution.org/1-Constitution/cons/iraq/iraqiconst19250321.html

https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Iraq_2005

Israel 🖉 edit

Freedom of expression is loosely defined by the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel and rulings by the Israel Supreme Court, although never explicitly protected.

Italy 🖉 edit

Constitution of 1948 Was the first to protect freedom of expression.

β€œItaly 1948 (Rev. 2012) Constitution.” 2020. Constitute. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Italy_2012?lang=en.

Ivory Coast 🖉 edit

According to the Preamble of the 1960 Constitution of the Republic of Cote d'Ivoire, "The People of Cote d'Ivoire proclaim their adherence to the principles of Democracy and of the Rights of Man, as they have been defined by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789, by the Universal Declaration of 1948, and as they are guaranteed by this Constitution." Articles 9 & 10 of the 2000 Constitution of the Republic of Cote d'Ivoire was more definitive. Article 9 held that: "The freedom of thought and of expression, notably the freedom of conscience, of religious or philosophical opinion are guaranteed to all, under reserve of respect of the law, of the rights of others, of the national security and of the public order." Article 10 was both explicit about freedom of expression: "Each has the right to express and to freely disseminate their ideas. All propaganda having for [its] object or for [its] effect to make one social group prevail over another, or to encourage racial or religious hatred is prohibited." This last prohibition on propaganda intended to divide groups with the society was very similar to a like prohibition in the 1960 Constitution.

References:

English translation of the French original text of the Constitution of 1960 Title I: Of the State and of Sovereignty," Constitution of the Republic of Cote d'Ivoire 3 November 1960 (1960): 3-4.

English translation of the French original text of the Constitution of 2000. "Chapter I: Of the Freedoms and of the Rights," Constitution of the Republic of Cote d'Ivoire 1 August 2000 (2000): 3-5

Jamaica 🖉 edit

Article 22 of the 1960 Jamaica Constitution protects freedom of expression.

References:

English original text of the Constitution of 1962 820 (2011) Chapter III: Fundamental Rights and Freedoms: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzjm0004&id=15&men_tab=srchresults

Japan 🖉 edit

Article 29 of the 1889 Japan Constitution stated: "Japanese subjects shall within the limits of the law, enjoy the liberty of speech, writing, publication, public meeting and association."

Article 21 of Japan's 1947 Constitution guaranteed the right more broadly: "Freedom of assembly and association as well as speech, press and all other forms of expression are guaranteed."

References:

1889 Japan Constitution: https://constituteproject.org/constitution/Japan_1889

1946 Japan Constitution: https://japan.kantei.go.jp/constitution_and_government_of_japan/constitution_e.html

Jordan 🖉 edit

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Kazakhstan 🖉 edit

Article 10 of the 1993 Kazakhstan Constitution states: "A citizen of the Republic shall have the right to freedom of speech, creed and their free expression. Nobody can be forced to express his views or be persecuted for having convictions."

References:

"The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan," International Legal Perspectives 5, no. 1 (1993): 111

Kenya 🖉 edit

Freedom of expression is protected in Kenya’s first Constitution, which was ratified in 1963. Chapter II Article 14b states that β€œWhereas every person in Kenya is entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, the right, whatever his race, tribe, place of origin or residence or other local connexion, political opinions, colour, creed or sex, but subject to respect for the rights and freedoms of others and for the public interest, to each and all of the following, namely: …freedom of conscience, of expression and of assembly and association…”. This is further elaborated in Article 23(1): "Except with his own consent, no. person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of expression, that is to say, freedom to hold opinions without interference, freedom to receive ideas and information without interference, freedom to communicate ideas and information without interference (whether the communication be to the public generally or to any person or class of persons) and freedom from interference with his correspondence."

Article 24(2) of the 1963 Constitution articulated the grounds for potential exception, or considerations relevant to conflict among rights and/or laws relevant to freedom of expression: "Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provisionβ€” (a) that is reasonably required in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health; or (b) that is reasonably required for the purpose of protecting the reputations, rights and freedoms of other persons or the private lives of persons concerned in legal proceedings, pre- venting the disclosure of information received in confidence, maintaining the authority and independence of the courts or regulating the technical administration or the technical operation of telephony, telegraphy, posts, wireless broadcasting or television; or (c) that imposes restrictions upon public officers, and except so far as that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society."

The language found in Articles 14(b) and 23(1) of the 1963 Constitutions is repeated in Articles 70 and 79(1) of the the 1969 Constitution. The language from 23(2) of the 1963 Constitution is also repeated in Article 79(2) of the 1969 Constitution, but further points are added to Article 79(2) of the 1969 Constitution.

References:

1963 Constitution of Kenya: http://kenyalaw.org/kl/fileadmin/pdfdownloads/1963_Constitution.pdf

1969 Constitution of Kenya: https://repository.kippra.or.ke/bitstream/handle/123456789/2324/THE%20CONSTITUTION%20OF%20KENYA%20ACT%201969%20No%205.%20of%201969.pdf?sequence=1

Kingdom of the Netherlands 🖉 edit

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Kiribati 🖉 edit

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Kuwait 🖉 edit

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Kyrgyzstan 🖉 edit

According to Article 16.2 of the 1993 Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic as amended in February 1996, "Every person in the Kyrgyz Republic shall enjoy the right ... to free expression and dissemination of one's thoughts, ideas, opinions."

References:

1993 Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic as amended in February 1996: http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/research/kyrgyzrepublic-constitution.html

Laos 🖉 edit

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Latvia 🖉 edit

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Lebanon 🖉 edit

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Lesotho 🖉 edit

Freedom of expression was asserted in the 1966 Lesotho Constitution, as well as in the 2010 Lesotho Constitution.

References:

1966 Lesotho Constitution: O’LEARY, B. L. β€œTHE CONSTITUTION OF LESOTHO: AN OUTLINE.” The Comparative and International Law Journal of Southern Africa 1, no. 2 (1968): 266–70. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23240737.

1993 Lesotho Constitution:https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Lesotho_2018.

Liberia 🖉 edit

Article 15 of Liberia’s 1847 Constitution first protected freedom of the press, but did not speak to other elements of freedom of expression. Article 15 of the 1984 Liberia Constitution outlines the right to freedom of expression. Article 15(a) defines the scope of the right: "Every person shall have the right to freedom of expression, being fully responsible for the abuse thereof. This right shall not be curtailed, restricted or enjoined by government save during an emergency declared in accordance with this Constitution." Article 15(b) outlines the content of the right: "The right encompasses the right to hold opinions without interference and the right to knowledge. It includes freedom of speech and of the press, academic freedom to receive and impart knowledge and information and the right of libraries to make such knowledge available. It includes non interference with the use of the mail, telephone and telegraph. It likewise includes the right to remain silent."

References:

1847 Constitution of Liberia: https://crc.gov.lr/doc/CONSTITUTION%20OF%201847%20final.pdf

1984 Constitution of Liberia: "Schedule," Constitution of the Republic of Liberia https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzlr0001&id=4&men_tab=srchresults

Libya 🖉 edit

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Liechtenstein 🖉 edit

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Lithuania 🖉 edit

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Luxembourg 🖉 edit

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Madagascar 🖉 edit

According to the preamble of the 1959 Constitution of the Malagasy Republic, "freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, freedom of association and freedom to unionize shall be guaranteed under conditions stipulated by law"

References:

1959 Constitution of the Malagasy Republic: "Preamble," Constitution of the Malagasy Republic (1959): 1-4: https://heinonline-org.proxygw.wrlc.org/HOL/Page?collection=cow&handle=hein.cow/zzmg0017&id=4&men_tab=srchresults